File Name: plate tectonics and volcanoes .zip
Students are able to explain the relationships between earthquakes, volcanoes, and plate boundaries in the western United States and Alaska. This activity was developed for middle school and high school students, grades 6 - However, its focus on data makes it adaptable for introductory college courses.
Thus far volcanoes have been discussed in terms of the kinds of volcanic mountains they form, the materials they produce, and the style of eruption they have.
Volcanism or volcanicity is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock magma onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava , pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent. Magma from the mantle or lower crust rises through its crust towards the surface. If magma reaches the surface, its behavior depends on the viscosity of the molten constituent rock.
Thursday, October 30, Acids can corrode some natural materials. Acids have pH levels lower than 7. Also called a scoria cone. Also called an extensional boundary. Also called the Somali Peninsula. Some hot spots produce volcanoes. Also called a cinder cone. Sea level is determined by measurements taken over a year cycle. Also called lithospheric plate. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.
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Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. You cannot download interactives. These tectonic plates rest upon the convecting mantle, which causes them to move.
Teach your students about plate tectonics using these classroom resources. The environmental hazards you face depend on where you live. For example, if you live in northern California you are more likely to be impacted by a wildfire, landslide, or earthquake than if you live in Charleston, South Carolina, but less likely to be hit by a hurricane. This is because the physical conditions in each place are different. The active San Andreas fault runs through California and causes regular earthquakes, while the warm waters transported by the Gulf Stream can intensify a storm heading for South Carolina.
These environmental hazards shape human activity regionally. Learn more about environmental hazards with this curated resource collection. According to the United States Geologic Survey, there are approximately 1, potentially active volcanoes worldwide.
Most are located around the Pacific Ocean in what is commonly called the Ring of Fire. A volcano is defined as an opening in the Earth's crust through which lava, ash, and gases erupt. The term also includes the cone-shaped landform built by repeated eruptions over time. Teach your students about volcanoes with this collection of engaging material. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. Skip to content.
Twitter Facebook Pinterest Google Classroom. Article Vocabulary. This molten rock is called magma when it is beneath the surface and lava when it erupt s, or flows out, from a volcano. Along with lava, volcanoes also release gases, ash, and solid rock. Volcanoes come in many different shapes and sizes but are most commonly cone-shaped hills or mountains.
They are found throughout the world, forming ridge s deep below the sea surface and mountains that are thousands of meters high. About 1, volcanoes on Earth are considered active, meaning they show some level of occasional activity and are likely to erupt again. Many others are dormant volcano es, showing no current signs of exploding but likely to become active at some point in the future.
Others are considered extinct. Volcanoes are incredibly powerful agents of change. Eruptions can create new landform s, but can also destroy everything in their path. Volcanologist s closely monitor volcanoes so they can better predict impending eruptions and prepare nearby populations for potential volcanic hazard s that could endanger their safety.
These plates are not fixed, but are constantly moving at a very slow rate. They move only a few centimeters per year. Sometimes, the plates collide with one another or move apart. Volcanoes are most common in these geologically active boundaries. The two types of plate boundaries that are most likely to produce volcanic activity are divergent plate boundaries and convergent plate boundaries.
At a divergent boundary , tectonic plates move apart from one another. They never really separate because magma continuously moves up from the mantle into this boundary, building new plate material on both sides of the plate boundary. Here, the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates are moving in opposite directions. The upward movement and eventual cooling of this buoyant magma creates high ridges on the ocean floor. These ridges are interconnected, forming a continuous volcanic mountain range nearly 60, kilometers 37, miles —the longest in the world.
Vent s and fractures also called fissure s in these mid-ocean ridges allow magma and gases to escape into the ocean. Most submarine volcanoes are found on ridges thousands of meters below the ocean surface.
Some ocean ridges reach the ocean surface and create landforms. The island of Iceland is a part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These eruptions were preceded by significant rift ing and cracking on the ground surface, which are also emblematic of diverging plate movement. Of course, divergent plate boundaries also exist on land. The East African Rift is an example of a single tectonic plate being ripped in two.
Along the Horn of Africa , the African plate is tearing itself into what is sometimes called the Nubian plate to the west, including most of the current African plate and the Somali plate to the east, including the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean.
At a convergent plate boundary , tectonic plates move toward one another and collide. Oftentimes, this collision forces the dense r plate edge to subduct , or sink beneath the plate edge that is less dense.
These subduction zone s can create deep trench es. As the denser plate edge moves downward, the pressure and temperature surrounding it increases, which causes changes to the plate that melt the mantle above, and the melted rock rises through the plate, sometimes reaching its surface as part of a volcano.
Over millions of years, the rising magma can create a series of volcanoes known as a volcanic arc. The majority of volcanic arcs can be found in the Ring of Fire , a horseshoe-shaped string of about volcanoes that edges the Pacific Ocean.
If you were to drain the water out of the Pacific Ocean, you would see a series of deep canyon s trenches running parallel to correspond ing volcanic island s and mountain ranges.
These mountains are continually built up as the Nazca plate subducts under the South American plate. For many years, scientists have been trying to explain why some volcanoes exist thousands of kilometers away from tectonic plate boundaries. The dominant theory, framed by Canadian geophysicist J. These hot spot s are able to independently melt the tectonic plate above them, creating magma that erupts onto the top of the plate.
In hot spots beneath the ocean, the tectonic activity creates a volcanic mound. Over millions of years, volcanic mounds can grow until they reach sea level and create a volcanic island. The volcanic island moves as part of its tectonic plate. The hot spot stays put, however. As the volcano moves farther from the hot spot, it goes extinct and eventually erode s back into the ocean. For Wilson and many scientists, the best example of hot spot volcanism is the Hawaiian Islands.
Experts think this volcanic chain of islands has been forming for at least 70 million years over a hot spot underneath the Pacific plate. Of all the inhabit ed Hawaiian Islands, Kauai is located farthest from the presumed hot spot and has the most eroded and oldest volcanic rocks, dated at 5. Hot spots can also create terrestrial volcanoes. The Yellowstone Supervolcano , for instance, sits over a hot spot in the middle of the North American plate, with a series of ancient caldera s stretching across southern Idaho.
The Yellowstone hot spot fuels the geyser s, hot spring s, and other geologic activity at Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. While volcanoes come in a variety of shapes and sizes, they all share a few key characteristics. All volcanoes are connected to a reservoir of molten rock, called a magma chamber , below the surface of the Earth. When pressure inside the chamber builds up, the buoyant magma travels out a surface vent or series of vents, through a central interior pipe or series of pipes.
These eruptions, which vary in size, material, and explosiveness, create different types of volcanoes. Stratovolcano es are some of the most easily recognizable and imposing volcanoes, with steep, conic peaks rising up to several thousand meters above the landscape. Also known as composite volcanoes, they are made up of layers of lava, volcanic ash , and fragment ed rocks. Mount Rainier is an impressive stratovolcano that rises 4, meters 14, feet above sea level just south of Seattle, Washington.
Over the past half million years, Mount Rainier has produced a series of alternating lava eruptions and debris eruptions. These eruptions have given Mount Rainier the classic layered structure and conic shape of a composite volcano.
Thursday, October 30, Acids can corrode some natural materials. Acids have pH levels lower than 7. Also called a scoria cone. Also called an extensional boundary. Also called the Somali Peninsula. Some hot spots produce volcanoes.
Countries located along plate boundaries, such as the Eastern Caribbean islands, Japan, Chile and the USA California are likely to experience earthquakes. At these plate boundaries the plates interact with each other in different ways; some of them slide past each other, others spread apart and others move toward each other with crumpling or with one dipping beneath the other. This last type of plate boundary is called a subduction zone which is the main type of plate interaction occurring in the Eastern Caribbean.
Students model Earth's tectonic plate movement and explore the relationship between these movements and different types of volcanoes. Much of the content is the same. The full original lesson can be found here. Show students pieces of a jigsaw puzzle or have them think of what puzzle pieces look like.
This is a lesson where learners explore plate movement and the relationship between plate tectonics and volcanoes.
German meteorologist Alfred Wegener is often credited as the first to develop a theory of plate tectonics, in the form of continental drift. Scientists discovered later that Pangea fragmented early in the Jurassic Period. The heat source is thought to be the decay of radioactive elements. How this convection propels the plates is poorly understood. Some geologists argue that upwelling magma at spreading centres pushes the plates, whereas others argue that the weight of a portion of a subducting plate one that is forced beneath another may pull the rest of the plate along.
Интересно, какие он строит планы. Обнародует ли ключ. Или жадность заставит его продать алгоритм.