File Name: sign and symptoms of hiv .zip
HIV is a virus that damages the immune system. It is transmitted through body fluids. Treatments are available for HIV infection, but there is no vaccine and no cure. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. Infection with HIV damages the body's immune system, which makes it more difficult to fight off infections and some cancers. Now effective treatment has been developed and people with HIV infection who take treatment daily can lead a full and long life.
Recent evidence shows that people who begin HIV treatment early in their infection have better health outcomes than those who begin HIV treatment at a later stage. Most people have mild symptoms or no symptoms when they are first infected with HIV.
Some people develop a flu-like illness with fever, sore throat, swollen glands or a rash a few weeks after being infected. These symptoms usually disappear without treatment after a week or two.
This is called the seroconversion illness. After the initial illness, people with HIV infection usually have no symptoms for many years, despite the virus living in their body. HIV is in the blood, semen, vaginal fluid or breast milk of an infected person and can be transmitted:. HIV is not transmitted by kissing or cuddling, by day-to-day social contact such as shaking hands, by sharing cutlery, cups or glasses, by eating food prepared by someone with HIV, through toilet seats, or by mosquito or other insect bites.
People can be infected with several different sexually transmitted infections at the same time. HIV testing is recommended at least once every year for all gay and homosexually active men, and people who inject drugs. Testing within these groups should be done up to every three months if the person has many sexual partners more than 5 within 3 months or has anal sex without a condom. HIV testing is also recommended for:.
Treatment should be started as early as possible as this has been shown to result in better health outcomes and dramatically reduces the risk of passing on HIV. When someone is diagnosed with a HIV infection, it is important that other people who may also be at risk, such as sexual partners, are informed that they should be tested urgently for HIV infection. Doctors and nurses can help by informing sexual partners anonymously. It is important to commence PEP as soon as possible after the exposure, and PEP must be started within 72 hours 3 days.
PEP drugs often have side effects and they are not suitable for everyone. If your exposure was more than three days ago, you should consult your doctor or a sexual health clinic about being tested for HIV. HIV is diagnosed by a blood test. One type of test detects antibodies to the virus, while another type looks for the virus itself. It currently takes between days before blood will show a positive test result after a new HIV infection the window period , and may take longer. This means that if after a recent exposure more than one blood test may be needed over time to rule out a new infection.
Treatment with antiretroviral drugs is very effective at preventing damage to the immune system caused by HIV.
Successful treatment greatly reduces the amount of virus in the person's blood and other bodily fluids which prevents spread of the virus to other people. This means that doctors and laboratory staff are legally required to provide some information about people diagnosed with HIV infection to NSW Health.
The information collected is confidential and does not include the names and addresses of people diagnosed with HIV. Public health staff use these data to understand who is at risk of the disease in order to plan activities to prevent new infections in the future and to provide services for people living with HIV.
You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Last updated: 26 October What is HIV? What are the symptoms of HIV infection? How is HIV spread? HIV is in the blood, semen, vaginal fluid or breast milk of an infected person and can be transmitted: during anal or vaginal sex without the protection of a condom by sharing drug injecting equipment contaminated needles, syringes and other injecting equipment and drug solutions by unsafe injections, tattoos and other procedures that involve unsterile cutting or piercing to a baby during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding.
Who is at risk of getting infected with HIV? In Australia, people at the highest risk of getting HIV infection are: men who have sex with men people who have sex with people from countries with a high rate of HIV infection people who inject drugs people who had tattoos or other piercings overseas using unsterile equipment people who have sex with a person with a high risk of HIV as listed here.
How is HIV prevented? PrEP contains two antiretroviral medicines that are also used to treat people who already have HIV infection. Condoms should be used in even if PrEP is being taken. What should I do if I have put myself at risk? How is HIV diagnosed? How is HIV treated? What is the public health response? Contact page owner: Communicable Diseases.
Individuals with AHI have increased HIV transmissibility due to the increased viral load in both blood and genital secretions, making it centrally important for prevention of secondary HIV transmission 1. While some patients with acute infection have a viral syndrome known as acute retroviral syndrome or primary HIV ; the mild and non-specific nature of acute retroviral syndrome complicates effective screening 2. A significant barrier to diagnosis of AHI is the non-specific nature of the signs and symptoms associated with the acute retroviral syndrome. Unless a clinician entertains the diagnosis in the differential and orders an appropriate diagnostic test, the diagnosis will be missed. It is vital to have clinicians consider AHI in young adults with fever and diffuse lymphadenopathy and that clinicians also know to include a viral specific test and not just an HIV antibody as diagnostic tests.
HIV is a virus that targets and alters the immune system, increasing the risk and impact of other infections and diseases. Without treatment, the infection might progress to an advanced stage called AIDS. The life expectancy of a person with HIV is now approaching that of someone who tests negative for the virus, provided that the person takes medications called antiretroviral therapy on an ongoing basis. These are types of T cell — white blood cells that circulate, detecting infections throughout the body and faults and anomalies in other cells. HIV targets and infiltrates CD4 cells, using them to create more copies of the virus.
HIV is a virus that damages the immune system. It is transmitted through body fluids. Treatments are available for HIV infection, but there is no vaccine and no cure.
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