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The material in this book is divided into 7 chapters and is not solely an updating of subjects from earlier editions.
About the Editor-in-Chief Dr. Shahidi has made significant contributions to both the basic and applied areas of food and nutraceutical science and technology, and has received numerous awards and 10 patents for his pioneering scientific achievements. Shahidi is editor and author of 64 books and over research articles and book chapters.
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Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section or of the United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.
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For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Department within the U. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print, however, may not be available in electronic format. Contents: v. Edible oil and fat products: chemistry, properties, and health effects — v. Edible oil and fat products: edible oils — v.
Edible oil and fat products: specially oils and oil products — v. Edible oil and fat products: products and applications — v. Edible oil and fat products: processing technologies — v. Industrial and nonedible products from oils and fats. Oils and fats, I. Bailey, Alton Edward, EARL G. LYNN A. GARY R. MIAN N. NEIL D. Preface Oils and fats are important components of foods, and they, or their derivatives and products thereof, play an important role in non-food applications. In food, oils and fats provide a concentrated source of energy as well as a carrier of fat-soluble components.
They also serve as a heat transfer medium for food processing and render desirable texture and flavor as well as mouthfeel to products. Oils and fats originate from plant and animal sources. Although plant sources include oilseeds, tropical fruits, and alga, the latter may originate from land-based animals, fish, marine mammals, and derived sources.
The main components of food lipids are triacylglycerols, but minor components are also important for quality characteristics, stability, and application areas. Both the type of fatty acids and their degree of unsaturation as well as the type and content of minor components affect the keeping quality of the oil, and certain minor components such as phytosterols might also be used for fingerprinting and authentification of the source materials. The physical state of fats and oils and their crystal structures are important for application of such products.
In addition, formulation of products for special applications such as bakery, confectionary, frying, salad dressing, margarines, and spreads requires special characteristics that make the products suitable for such purposes. Thus, each source material will be important for its physical and chemical characteristics and hence suitability as a food component. Recent developments in the area of oils and fats has led to the production of specialty lipids from novel sources such as fruit seeds, nuts, and other minor plant sources.
In addition, preparation of structured lipids for a myriad of applications has been of interest. Minor components of oils and fats may be isolated during processing and used as nutraceutical and functional food ingredients.
Examples are lecithin, phytosterols, tocopherols, and tocotrienols, among others. Obviously, the health-promoting potential of such products is also of interest. The processing technologies employed for production of fats and oils, and associated components, to make them shelf-stable with acceptable sensory characteristics and flavor as well as secondary processing technologies for production of specific products are important considerations in this area.
There are many areas where oils and fats are used for non-food purposes. Thus, detergents, soaps, glycerine and polymers, inks, lubricants, and biodiesel may be derived from fatty acids and their derivatives. Many applications would provide alternatives to the use of synthetic material or environmentally friendly substitutes in non-food applications.
The sixth edition of Bailey provides a comprehensive description of topics relevant to the oils and fats industry in six volumes as compared with five volumes in the fifth edition.
The additional volume volume 3 is mainly on specialty oils and fats and their byproducts or minor components as well as on those of low-calorie fat substitutes and structured lipids.
An article on fish oils and one on marine mammal oils are also included in this volume. However, the material covered in other volumes is often substantially different from the available in the fifth edition as new articles are introduced, and when the title appears the same, substantial updating of the references and introduction of new material has occurred; new authors in some cases have made these contributions.
Thus, the first volume includes three new articles on crystallization and physical properties of oils and fats. There are also new articles on antioxidant theory and regulatory status as well as on mechanisms and measurements of lipid oxidation.
A new article has been introduced on quality assurance of oils and fats. Meanwhile, the second volume presents the main sources of food lipids, and new articles on sesame oil and rice bran oil have been introduced.
The fourth volume provides a description of application areas, and here again new articles on confectinary lipids as well as on frying oils and snack food production have been added. The fifth volume on processing technologies introduces new articles on supercritical, membrane, and extrusion technologies. Finally, the sixth volume on nonedible uses of fats and oils has new articles on biodiesel, hydrolic fluids, lubricants, inks, as well as pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses of lipids.
An article on the use of soybean oil in edible film and adhesive production is also included. Thus, the sixth edition is substantially different from what was available in the fifth edition. I am indebted to many authors for their state-of-the-art contributions as well as to primary and secondary reviewers for different articles. The advisory committee members served an important role in providing invaluable comments.
In addition, staff from John Wiley and Sons provided considerable help in different aspects related to production and assembly of the work. This series serves as a primary source of and as a compendium of information on oils and fats for the industry, academia and government scientists, and technical personnel, and as a reference for senior undergraduate and graduate students in food science, nutrition, dietetics, biochemistry, and related disciplines.
An integrated table of contents allows better search of materials of interest, and the last volume has a cumulative index. Extensive bibliography throughout the series also provides the reader with the opportunity to consult primary references for additional information. TAG Oil Some Food Applications Industrial and Nonedible Products from Oils and Fats The industrial exploitation of oils and fats, both for food and oleochemical products, is based on chemical modification of both the carboxyl and unsaturated groups present in fatty acids.
Although the most reactive sites in fatty acids are the carboxyl group and double bonds, methylenes adjacent to them are activated, increasing their reactivity. Only rarely do saturated chains show reactivity.
Carboxyl groups and unsaturated centers usually react independently, but when in close proximity, both may react through neighboring group participation. In enzymatic reactions, the reactivity of the carboxyl group can be influenced by the presence of a nearby double bond. The industrial chemistry of oils and fats is a mature technology, with decades of experience and refinement behind current practices. It is not, however, static. Environmental pressures demand cleaner processes, and there is a market for new products.
Edited by Fereidoon Shahidi. Changing perceptions of what is nutritionally desirable in fat-based products also drives changing technology; interesterification is more widely used and may replace partial hydrogenation in the formulation of some modified fats. The coverage in this chapter is necessarily selective, focusing on aspects of fatty acid and lipid chemistry relevant to the analysis and industrial exploitation of oils and fats.
The emphasis is on fatty acids and acylglycerols found in commodity oils and the reactions used in the food and oleochemical industries. The practical application of this chemistry is dealt with in detail in other chapters.
Current areas of research, either to improve existing processes or to develop new ones, are also covered, a common theme being the use of chemical and enzyme catalysts. Compounds of second-row transition metals rhodium and ruthenium and the oxides of rhenium and tungsten have attracted particular interest as catalysts for diverse reactions at double bonds. Recent interest in developing novel compounds by functionalizing the fatty acid chain is also mentioned.
To date, few of these developments have found industrial use, but they suggest where future developments are likely. A number of recent reviews and books cover and expand on topics discussed here 1— Fatty Acids Fatty acids are almost entirely straight chain aliphatic carboxylic acids.
The broadest definition includes all chain lengths, but most natural fatty acids are C4 to C22, with C18 most common. Naturally occurring fatty acids share a common biosynthesis. The chain is built from two carbon units, and cis double bonds are inserted by desaturase enzymes at specific positions relative to the carboxyl group.
This results in even-chain-length fatty acids with a characteristic pattern of methylene interrupted cis double bonds. A large number of fatty acids varying in chain length and unsaturation result from this pathway. Systematic names for fatty acids are too cumbersome for general use, and shorter alternatives are widely used. Two numbers separated by a colon give, respectively, the chain length and number of double bonds: octadecenoic acid with 18 carbons and 1 double bond is therefore The position of double bonds is indicated in a number of ways: explicitly, defining the position and configuration; or locating double bonds relative to the methyl or carboxyl ends of the chain.
Double-bond position relative to the methyl end is shown as n-x or ox, where x is the number of carbons from the methyl end. The n-system is now preferred, but both are widely used.
Common names Table 1 may be historical, often conveying no structural information, or abbreviations of systematic names. Fatty Acids in Commodity Oils and Fats.
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