File Name: xrd theory and principle .zip
X-ray crystallography XRC is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal , in which the crystalline structure causes a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this electron density , the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds , their crystallographic disorder , and various other information.
Basic XRD Questions we can answer. The XRD can be used to identify single crystals, and to reveal the structure of single crystals. It can be used to identify crystals which are present in a mixture, e. For minerals with variable formulas and structures, such as clays, XRD is the best method for identifying them and determining their proportion within a sample. A fantastic program on the history of crystallography and X-ray diffraction is available from the Royal Institution for free on YouTube here.
X-ray crystallography XRC is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal , in which the crystalline structure causes a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal.
From this electron density , the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds , their crystallographic disorder , and various other information. Since many materials can form crystals—such as salts , metals , minerals , semiconductors , as well as various inorganic, organic, and biological molecules—X-ray crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields.
In its first decades of use, this method determined the size of atoms, the lengths and types of chemical bonds, and the atomic-scale differences among various materials, especially minerals and alloys.
The method also revealed the structure and function of many biological molecules, including vitamins , drugs, proteins and nucleic acids such as DNA.
X-ray crystallography is still the primary method for characterizing the atomic structure of new materials and in discerning materials that appear similar by other experiments.
X-ray crystal structures can also account for unusual electronic or elastic properties of a material, shed light on chemical interactions and processes, or serve as the basis for designing pharmaceuticals against diseases.
In a single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurement, a crystal is mounted on a goniometer. The goniometer is used to position the crystal at selected orientations. The crystal is illuminated with a finely focused monochromatic beam of X-rays, producing a diffraction pattern of regularly spaced spots known as reflections. The two-dimensional images taken at different orientations are converted into a three-dimensional model of the density of electrons within the crystal using the mathematical method of Fourier transforms , combined with chemical data known for the sample.
Poor resolution fuzziness or even errors may result if the crystals are too small, or not uniform enough in their internal makeup.
X-ray crystallography is related to several other methods for determining atomic structures. Similar diffraction patterns can be produced by scattering electrons or neutrons , which are likewise interpreted by Fourier transformation. If single crystals of sufficient size cannot be obtained, various other X-ray methods can be applied to obtain less detailed information; such methods include fiber diffraction , powder diffraction and if the sample is not crystallized small-angle X-ray scattering SAXS.
If the material under investigation is only available in the form of nanocrystalline powders or suffers from poor crystallinity, the methods of electron crystallography can be applied for determining the atomic structure. For all above mentioned X-ray diffraction methods, the scattering is elastic ; the scattered X-rays have the same wavelength as the incoming X-ray. By contrast, inelastic X-ray scattering methods are useful in studying excitations of the sample such as plasmons , crystal-field and orbital excitations, magnons , and phonons , rather than the distribution of its atoms.
Crystals, though long admired for their regularity and symmetry, were not investigated scientifically until the 17th century. Johannes Kepler hypothesized in his work Strena seu de Nive Sexangula A New Year's Gift of Hexagonal Snow that the hexagonal symmetry of snowflake crystals was due to a regular packing of spherical water particles.
The Danish scientist Nicolas Steno pioneered experimental investigations of crystal symmetry. Hence, William Hallowes Miller in was able to give each face a unique label of three small integers, the Miller indices which remain in use today for identifying crystal faces.
From the available data and physical reasoning, Barlow proposed several crystal structures in the s that were validated later by X-ray crystallography;  however, the available data were too scarce in the s to accept his models as conclusive.
Physicists were uncertain of the nature of X-rays, but soon suspected that they were waves of electromagnetic radiation , a form of light.
The Maxwell theory of electromagnetic radiation was well accepted among scientists, and experiments by Charles Glover Barkla showed that X-rays exhibited phenomena associated with electromagnetic waves, including transverse polarization and spectral lines akin to those observed in the visible wavelengths.
Single-slit experiments in the laboratory of Arnold Sommerfeld suggested that X-rays had a wavelength of about 1 angstrom. X-rays are not only waves but are also photons , and have particle properties. Albert Einstein introduced the photon concept in ,  but it was not broadly accepted until ,   when Arthur Compton confirmed it by the scattering of X-rays from electrons. Crystals are regular arrays of atoms, and X-rays can be considered waves of electromagnetic radiation.
Atoms scatter X-ray waves, primarily through the atoms' electrons. Just as an ocean wave striking a lighthouse produces secondary circular waves emanating from the lighthouse, so an X-ray striking an electron produces secondary spherical waves emanating from the electron. This phenomenon is known as elastic scattering , and the electron or lighthouse is known as the scatterer. A regular array of scatterers produces a regular array of spherical waves. Although these waves cancel one another out in most directions through destructive interference , they add constructively in a few specific directions, determined by Bragg's law :.
These specific directions appear as spots on the diffraction pattern called reflections. Thus, X-ray diffraction results from an electromagnetic wave the X-ray impinging on a regular array of scatterers the repeating arrangement of atoms within the crystal. In principle, any wave impinging on a regular array of scatterers produces diffraction , as predicted first by Francesco Maria Grimaldi in To produce significant diffraction, the spacing between the scatterers and the wavelength of the impinging wave should be similar in size.
For illustration, the diffraction of sunlight through a bird's feather was first reported by James Gregory in the later 17th century. The first artificial diffraction gratings for visible light were constructed by David Rittenhouse in , and Joseph von Fraunhofer in However, visible light has too long a wavelength typically, angstroms to observe diffraction from crystals. Prior to the first X-ray diffraction experiments, the spacings between lattice planes in a crystal were not known with certainty.
The idea that crystals could be used as a diffraction grating for X-rays arose in in a conversation between Paul Peter Ewald and Max von Laue in the English Garden in Munich.
Ewald had proposed a resonator model of crystals for his thesis, but this model could not be validated using visible light , since the wavelength was much larger than the spacing between the resonators. Von Laue realized that electromagnetic radiation of a shorter wavelength was needed to observe such small spacings, and suggested that X-rays might have a wavelength comparable to the unit-cell spacing in crystals.
Von Laue worked with two technicians, Walter Friedrich and his assistant Paul Knipping, to shine a beam of X-rays through a copper sulfate crystal and record its diffraction on a photographic plate. After being developed, the plate showed a large number of well-defined spots arranged in a pattern of intersecting circles around the spot produced by the central beam.
As described in the mathematical derivation below , the X-ray scattering is determined by the density of electrons within the crystal. Since the energy of an X-ray is much greater than that of a valence electron, the scattering may be modeled as Thomson scattering , the interaction of an electromagnetic ray with a free electron. This model is generally adopted to describe the polarization of the scattered radiation.
The intensity of Thomson scattering for one particle with mass m and elementary charge q is: . Hence the atomic nuclei, which are much heavier than an electron, contribute negligibly to the scattered X-rays. After Von Laue's pioneering research, the field developed rapidly, most notably by physicists William Lawrence Bragg and his father William Henry Bragg.
In —, the younger Bragg developed Bragg's law , which connects the observed scattering with reflections from evenly spaced planes within the crystal. The earliest structures were generally simple and marked by one-dimensional symmetry.
However, as computational and experimental methods improved over the next decades, it became feasible to deduce reliable atomic positions for more complicated two- and three-dimensional arrangements of atoms in the unit-cell. The potential of X-ray crystallography for determining the structure of molecules and minerals—then only known vaguely from chemical and hydrodynamic experiments—was realized immediately.
The earliest structures were simple inorganic crystals and minerals, but even these revealed fundamental laws of physics and chemistry. The first atomic-resolution structure to be "solved" i. The structure of graphite was solved in  by the related method of powder diffraction ,  which was developed by Peter Debye and Paul Scherrer and, independently, by Albert Hull in In , the Festival Pattern Group at the Festival of Britain hosted a collaborative group of textile manufacturers and experienced crystallographers to design lace and prints based on the X-ray crystallography of insulin , china clay , and hemoglobin.
One of the leading scientists of the project was Dr. Megaw is credited as one of the central figures who took inspiration from crystal diagrams and saw their potential in design. X-ray crystallography has led to a better understanding of chemical bonds and non-covalent interactions. The initial studies revealed the typical radii of atoms, and confirmed many theoretical models of chemical bonding, such as the tetrahedral bonding of carbon in the diamond structure,  the octahedral bonding of metals observed in ammonium hexachloroplatinate IV ,  and the resonance observed in the planar carbonate group  and in aromatic molecules.
Also in the s, Victor Moritz Goldschmidt and later Linus Pauling developed rules for eliminating chemically unlikely structures and for determining the relative sizes of atoms. These rules led to the structure of brookite and an understanding of the relative stability of the rutile , brookite and anatase forms of titanium dioxide.
The distance between two bonded atoms is a sensitive measure of the bond strength and its bond order ; thus, X-ray crystallographic studies have led to the discovery of even more exotic types of bonding in inorganic chemistry , such as metal-metal double bonds,    metal-metal quadruple bonds,    and three-center, two-electron bonds.
X-ray diffraction is a very powerful tool in catalyst development. Ex-situ measurements are carried out routinely for checking the crystal structure of materials or to unravel new structures. In-situ experiments give comprehensive understanding about the structural stability of catalysts under reaction conditions. In material sciences, many complicated inorganic and organometallic systems have been analyzed using single-crystal methods, such as fullerenes , metalloporphyrins , and other complicated compounds.
Single-crystal diffraction is also used in the pharmaceutical industry , due to recent problems with polymorphs. The major factors affecting the quality of single-crystal structures are the crystal's size and regularity; recrystallization is a commonly used technique to improve these factors in small-molecule crystals. Since the s, X-ray diffraction has been the principal method for determining the arrangement of atoms in minerals and metals.
The application of X-ray crystallography to mineralogy began with the structure of garnet , which was determined in by Menzer. A systematic X-ray crystallographic study of the silicates was undertaken in the s. Machatschki extended these insights to minerals in which aluminium substitutes for the silicon atoms of the silicates.
The first application of X-ray crystallography to metallurgy likewise occurred in the mids. On October 17, , the Curiosity rover on the planet Mars at " Rocknest " performed the first X-ray diffraction analysis of Martian soil.
The results from the rover's CheMin analyzer revealed the presence of several minerals, including feldspar , pyroxenes and olivine , and suggested that the Martian soil in the sample was similar to the "weathered basaltic soils " of Hawaiian volcanoes. The first structure of an organic compound, hexamethylenetetramine , was solved in A significant advance was the structure of phthalocyanine ,  a large planar molecule that is closely related to porphyrin molecules important in biology, such as heme , corrin and chlorophyll.
X-ray crystallography of biological molecules took off with Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin , who solved the structures of cholesterol , penicillin and vitamin B 12 , for which she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in In , she succeeded in solving the structure of insulin , on which she worked for over thirty years. Crystal structures of proteins which are irregular and hundreds of times larger than cholesterol began to be solved in the late s, beginning with the structure of sperm whale myoglobin by Sir John Cowdery Kendrew ,  for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Max Perutz in X-ray crystallography is used routinely to determine how a pharmaceutical drug interacts with its protein target and what changes might improve it.
Membrane proteins are a large component of the genome , and include many proteins of great physiological importance, such as ion channels and receptors. On the other end of the size scale, even relatively small molecules may pose challenges for the resolving power of X-ray crystallography. The structure assigned in to the antibiotic isolated from a marine organism, diazonamide A C 40 H 34 Cl 2 N 6 O 6 , molar mass Despite being an invaluable tool in structural biology , protein crystallography carries some inherent problems in its methodology that hinder data interpretation.
The crystal lattice, which is formed during the crystallization process, contains numerous units of the purified protein, which are densely and symmetrically packed in the crystal.
When looking for a previously unknown protein, figuring out its shape and boundaries within the crystal lattice can be challenging. Proteins are usually composed of smaller subunits, and the task of distinguishing between the subunits and identifying the actual protein, can be challenging even for the experienced crystallographers.
The non-biological interfaces that occur during crystallization are known as crystal-packing contacts or simply, crystal contacts and cannot be distinguished by crystallographic means. When a new protein structure is solved by X-ray crystallography and deposited in the Protein Data Bank , its authors are requested to specify the "biological assembly" which would constitute the functional, biologically-relevant protein.
However, errors, missing data and inaccurate annotations during the submission of the data, give rise to obscure structures and compromise the reliability of the database. The error rate in the case of faulty annotations alone has been reported to be upwards of 6.
Clark, Eastern Michigan University. X-ray powder diffraction XRD is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material and can provide information on unit cell dimensions. The analyzed material is finely ground, homogenized, and average bulk composition is determined. Max von Laue, in , discovered that crystalline substances act as three-dimensional diffraction gratings for X-ray wavelengths similar to the spacing of planes in a crystal lattice. X-ray diffraction is now a common technique for the study of crystal structures and atomic spacing. X-ray diffraction is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample.
X-ray powder diffraction XRPD is an important tool to determine the phase composition of archaeological ceramics. In principle, a thin beam of X-rays incident to a lattice plane of crystalline matter is scattered in specific directions and angles depending on the distances of atoms. This allows determination of characteristic unit cell dimensions and serves to unambiguously identify crystalline phases in the ceramics. In this chapter, generation of X-rays and the theory of diffraction will be briefly discussed as well as equipment, focusing conditions, and sample preparation procedures of common XRPD methods. The X-ray pattern obtained will provide an analytical fingerprint that can be matched against the Powder Diffraction File of the International Centre for Diffraction Data. Examples will be given of application of this analytical technique to archaeological clays and ceramics. Keywords: X-ray powder diffraction , generation of X-rays , theory of diffraction , clays , archaeological ceramics.
When an X-ray is shined on a crystal, it diffracts in a pattern characteristic of the structure. In powder X-ray diffraction, the diffraction pattern is obtained from a powder of the material, rather than an individual crystal. Powder diffraction is often easier and more convenient than single crystal diffraction since it does not require individual crystals be made. Powder X-ray diffraction XRD also obtains a diffraction pattern for the bulk material of a crystalline solid, rather than of a single crystal, which doesn't necessarily represent the overall material. Since most materials have unique diffraction patterns, compounds can be identified by using a database of diffraction patterns. The purity of a sample can also be determined from its diffraction pattern, as well as the composition of any impurities present.
momentum transfer. By analogy with the kinetic theory of gases the x-ray photon. 1 Principles of X-ray Diffraction. Figure Geometry of scattering vector.
X-ray diffraction analysis XRD is a technique used in materials science to determine the crystallographic structure of a material. XRD works by irradiating a material with incident X-rays and then measuring the intensities and scattering angles of the X-rays that leave the material . A primary use of XRD analysis is the identification of materials based on their diffraction pattern. As well as phase identification, XRD also yields information on how the actual structure deviates from the ideal one, owing to internal stresses and defects .
It is assumed that each atomic plane reflects a very small fraction of the incident amplitude, small enough so that the weakening effect of this reflection on the incident amplitude may be neglected throughout the crystal. There exists, then, only the transmitted wave. If, however, the phases of all the reflected waves arrive within less than one half wave-length phase difference, then all reflected amplitudes will build up together to an optical field in the direction of reflection, without any actual cancellations of contributions. Now the difference of optical path for the top and bottom wave is shown by the heavy-drawn path lying between two parts of the wave-fronts of the incident and reflected waves. The greater the wave-length, the larger the glancing angle for reflection on the same plane; the greater the spacing, the smaller is the glancing angle for a given wave-length.
Powder diffraction is a widely used scientific technique in the characterization of materials with broad application in materials science, chemistry, physics, geology, pharmacology and archaeology. Powder Diffraction: Theory and Practice provides an advanced introductory text about modern methods and applications of powder diffraction in research and industry. The authors begin with a brief overview of the basic theory of diffraction from crystals and powders.
The best way to learn protein X-ray diffraction is by practical work in the laboratory. However, it would be very unsatisfying to perform the experiments without understanding why they have to be done in such and such a way. Moreover, at several stages in the determination of protein structures, it is necessary to decide what the next step should be.
У меня чутье. У нее чутье. Ну вот, на Мидж снова что-то нашло. - Если Стратмор не забил тревогу, то зачем тревожиться. - Да в шифровалке темно как в аду, черт тебя дери. - Может быть, Стратмор решил посмотреть на звезды. - Джабба, мне не до шуток.
Ненавидел американскую еду, американские нравы, но более всего ему было ненавистно то, что американцы железной хваткой держали мировой рынок компьютерных программ. У Стратмора был смелый план - создать всемирный стандарт шифрования с черным ходом для Агентства национальной безопасности. Он страстно желал разделить эту мечту со Сьюзан, осуществить ее с ней вместе, но знал, что это невозможно. Хотя смерть Энсея Танкадо спасет в будущем тысячи жизней, Сьюзан никогда не примет ничего подобного: она убежденная пацифистка. Я тоже пацифист, - подумал Стратмор, - я просто не могу позволить себе роскошь вести себя как пацифист.
High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction (HRXRD) Training. • HRXRD is X-Ray Diffraction Theory Databases such as the Powder Diffraction File (PDF) contain dI.
Это очень и очень плохо. - Спокойствие, - потребовал Фонтейн. - На какие же параметры нацелен этот червь. На военную информацию. Тайные операции. Джабба покачал головой и бросил взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему была где-то далеко, потом посмотрел в глаза директору. - Сэр, как вы знаете, всякий, кто хочет проникнуть в банк данных извне, должен пройти несколько уровней защиты.
Он целый год хвастался, что разрабатывает алгоритм, непробиваемый для грубой силы. - Н-но… - Сьюзан запнулась, но тут же продолжила: - Я была уверена, что он блефует. Он действительно это сделал. - Да. Создатель последнего шифра, который никто никогда не взломает. Сьюзан долго молчала. - Но… это значит… Стратмор посмотрел ей прямо в глаза: - Да.
Камера последовала за Халохотом, двинувшимся в направлении жертвы. Внезапно откуда-то появился пожилой человек, подбежал к Танкадо и опустился возле него на колени. Халохот замедлил шаги. Мгновение спустя появились еще двое - тучный мужчина и рыжеволосая женщина. Они также подошли к Танкадо. - Неудачный выбор места, - прокомментировал Смит.
What is X-ray Diffraction diffraction (XRD), and was direct evidence for the periodic atomic In the powder diffraction file (PDF) contained nearly.