File Name: antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease .zip
Oxidative stress is generated by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species ROS and antioxidants. An excess of ROS leads to the degradation of lipids, proteins, and DNA and thus may lead to oxidative damage to cells and, in consequence, to the overexpression of oncogenes, mutagen formation, the induction of atherogenic activity, or inflammation. Oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, cancer, immune disorders, diabetes, aging, and others. Plants, especially dietary fruits and vegetables, are a rich source of antioxidants. It is postulated that antioxidants produce health benefits through the direct reduction of oxidative stress.
There is no doubt that successful prevention is the key to controlling morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases affecting humankind. Prevention provides: the methods to avoid occurrence of disease and most population-based health promotion efforts are of this type; methods to diagnose and treat extant disease in early stages before it causes significant morbidity; methods to reduce negative impact of extant disease by restoring function and reducing disease-related complications; and finally, the methods to mitigate or avoid results of unnecessary or excessive interventions in the health system. The quality and quantity of diet with respect to the intake of fresh food fruits, seeds and vegetables may improve our health and consequently decrease the risk of any disease. However, it is worthy to mention that these compounds are involved in other functions a part from being antioxidant nutrients. Selenium Se , a trace mineral.
Susan T. Oxidation of lipid, nucleic acids or protein has been suggested to be involved in the etiology of several chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataract, age-related macular degeneration and aging in general. A large body of research has investigated the potential role of antioxidant nutrients in the prevention of these and other chronic diseases. The first part of the review emphasizes the utility of biological markers of exposure for these nutrients and the relationship to dietary intake data. The second part considers functional assays of oxidative stress status in humans including the strengths and limitations of various assays available for use in epidemiologic research. Studies that have examined the effects of antioxidant nutrients on these functional markers are included for illustrative purposes. The review concludes with a discussion of methodologic issues and challenges for studies involving biomarkers of exposure to antioxidant nutrients and of oxidative stress status.
Often used as a marketing buzzword, learn about the role of antioxidants beyond the hype, and some of the research on health and disease prevention. Jump to: — What are antioxidants? Another constant threat comes from chemicals called free radicals. In very high levels, they are capable of damaging cells and genetic material. The body generates free radicals as the inevitable byproducts of turning food into energy. Free radicals are also formed after exercising or exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollution, and sunlight. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations.
Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against free radicals, which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food or when you're exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation. Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Other naturally occurring antioxidants include flavonoids, tannins, phenols and lignans. Plant-based foods are the best sources.
Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals , thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid vitamin C terminate these chain reactions. To balance the oxidative stress , plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes e. The term "antioxidant" is mostly used for two entirely different groups of substances: industrial chemicals that are added to products to prevent oxidation, and naturally occurring compounds that are present in foods and tissue. The former, industrial antioxidants, have diverse uses: acting as preservatives in food and cosmetics, and being oxidation -inhibitors in rubber, synthetic plastics, and fuels.
For example, vitamin C effectively inhibits lipid and protein oxidation in human plasma exposed to various patho physiologically relevant types of oxidative stress, such as activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, reagent or myeloperoxidase-derived hypochlorous acid, cigarette smoke, or redox-active iron or copper ions 1 , 3. Vitamin E is the most abundant lipid-soluble antioxidant in human lipoproteins and tissues and acts as a chain-breaking antioxidant against lipid peroxidation 3. There is ample evidence, mainly from case-control studies, that biomarkers of oxidative damage in human plasma, urine, and cells are increased in subjects with certain diseases or associated risk factors. F 2 -isoprostanes and their metabolites, which are reliable markers of in vivo lipid peroxidation, are elevated in hepatic cirrhosis and Alzheimer's disease and in subjects with coronary risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, or hyperhomocysteinemia 6 , 8. Furthermore, plasma and tissue levels of protein carbonyls, indicative of protein oxidative damage, are increased in smokers, several neurodegenerative diseases, cataractogenesis, and rheumatoid arthritis 6. Thus, it is possible, although not proven, that these diseases are in part caused by oxidative damage to critical biological macromolecules and that dietary intake of, or supplementation with, antioxidants may lower disease risk or be useful in disease treatment.
Oxidative stress has been related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases that account for a major portion of deaths today. Antioxidants.
Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in your body. Free radicals are oxygen-containing molecules with an uneven number of electrons. The uneven number allows them to easily react with other molecules. Free radicals can cause large chain chemical reactions in your body because they react so easily with other molecules.
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Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or prevent oxidative stress. This article examines the process of oxidative stress.Millard B. 16.03.2021 at 09:29
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