File Name: theories of guidance and counseling .zip
In the text, Boy and Pine emphasize the practical merits of theory and indicate 6 functions of theory: 1 Theory helps counsellors find unity and relatedness within the diversity of existence 2 Theory compels counsellors to examine relationships they would otherwise overlook 3 Theory gives counsellors operational guidelines by which to work and helps them evaluate their development as professionals 4 Theory helps counsellors focus on relevant information and tells them what to look for 5 Theory helps counsellors assist clients in the effective modification of their behavior, cognitions, emotional functioning, and interpersonal relationships. One of the first theories to gain public recognition and acceptance Psychoanalytic theory has been the foundation from which the more than counselling theories have developed Case example of Karen and Cathartic Recollection The Founder of Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud Viennese Psychiatrist Entered into the University of Vienna at age 17 and worked as a research scholar in an institute of physiology
Boy, A. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher. Charema, J.
In the context of current research in, and calls for, evidence-based practice, an action theory perspective is proposed for the evaluation of vocational counselling and other career guidance interventions. The proposition of an action theory perspective, which is based on the common understanding of human experience as being goal-directed, is made in light of several issues in the philosophy of science relevant to evaluation, including the role accorded common sense, the tension between evaluating processes and outcomes, how meaning is represented, how quality is judged, and the place of the intentionality of human agents.
The specifics of this integrative approach for evaluation include the continuity of action, project, and career, as well as goals, functional steps, and behavioural and other elements that comprise them. These systems operate in vocational counselling itself, as well as in other systems of which counselling is a part.
The research evidence on vocational counselling reflects the goal-directed processes that the perspective enunciates. In these disciplines, evidence-based practice borrows from evidence-based medicine which has been defined as,. The practice of evidence based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. The latter is based on research in the basic sciences and patient-centred clinical research.
In this research, the call for demonstrating the effectiveness or efficacy of interventions has been a significant focus. Mimicking this standard of the medical field, researchers and practitioners in psychology and social science practice disciplines readily use terms like evidence-based interventions and empirically-supported and manualized treatments. Similarly, the same interventions can be examined for their effectiveness when applied in more diverse, real-world settings.
Secondly, while psychotherapy theories are identified within narrowly defined schools with particular methods of intervention, for example, psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral, vocational counselling and counselling psychology often promote integrative views, on the one hand, and a number of intervention techniques not tightly tied to particular schools, on the other. Thirdly, while psychotherapy has always been competitive with psychopharmacological intervention and thus research on both was inclined to collect similar data, the situation and the tasks of vocational counselling are often different from psychotherapy.
Fourthly, for a long time, psychotherapy adhered to the illness-overcoming rather than the life-facilitating paradigm. In contrast, vocational counselling and counselling psychology were, from the very beginning, facilitative interventions.
To answer this question, we begin with descriptions of the domains of vocational counselling and career guidance, as the evaluation of a domain depends on its characteristics and features. Services intended to assist people of any age and at any point throughout their lives to make educational, training and occupational choices to manage their career. Career guidance helps people to reflect on their ambitions, interests, qualifications and abilities.
It helps them to understand the labour market and education systems, and to relate this to what they know about themselves. Comprehensive career guidance tries to teach people to plan and make decisions about work and learning. Career guidance makes information about the labour market and about educational opportunities more accessible by organizing it, systematising it and making it available when and where people need it.
Furthermore, they affirm that counselling is a goal-directed process. They also imply that there is a clear goal or conception of what the client should be doing as a result of counselling. Career guidance is a purposeful activity with goals, strategies, and tactics, although the counselling and career theories on which these interventions are based do not always present themselves as theories of goal-directed processes.
To adequately carry out the processes described in these definitions, the counsellor and client must be engaged together in goal-directed processes in which both parties continuously evaluate the processes as they engage in them.
Furthermore, the evaluation of career guidance is not limited to what a particular counsellor and client do. It encompasses the broader system in which different levels, for example, familial, programmatic, institutional, and cultural levels, can be examined. However, in a case such as this one, when evaluation of goal-directed processes and outcomes range from the individual to the cultural, then we recognize the need for a conceptualization that integrates these levels and the various processes and outcomes of vocational counselling itself.
For example, the interventions of a group of counsellors who work at the same counselling centre can be seen as a part of the goal-directed activity of a super-ordinate system; in this case, the services provided by the centre.
Here the institutional processes contribute to an action system in the same way as the client-counsellor processes contribute to action system. Thus, the institutional processes are subject to a comparable evaluation perspective. Obviously, each scientific evaluation specifies the action system within which these results make sense, such as a particular approach, a professional discipline or an institution.
What would be evaluated are the joint projects of the relevant groups utilizing explicit criteria. This understanding should be conceptually grounded, look at process and outcome, and be able to address evaluation beyond the dyadic level of counsellor and client.
Before presenting the action-theoretical view, we expand on a number of challenges that the evaluation of vocational counselling presents, which are subsequently addressed in our action theoretical formulation.
As such, one can easily imagine a range of issues that arise in its practice. Among the pertinent issues relative to the evaluation of vocational counselling are the role accorded common sense, the tension between evaluating processes and outcomes, how meaning is represented, how quality is judged, and the place of the intentionality of human agents.
Until recently, experts in the field did not consider everyday thinking as particularly relevant for theorizing and conducting empirical research Misgeld, ; Peavy, Nevertheless, professional counsellors, researchers, and other practitioners have a very ambivalent relationship to everyday thinking. For example, we know that according to the generally accepted proposition of falsification in science, validation reasoning is not accepted, that is, we are not able to prove that something is right Popper, However, professionals generally pretend that they can, as it otherwise would be against popular expectations and would likely damage the social legitimacy of their professional disciplines.
In addition, in many empirical approaches which abstain from comprehensive theorizing, hypotheses are often based on the everyday experience of the researcher. Self-evident everyday reasoning is also relied on in the case of the evaluation of professional theories and programs such as counselling interventions.
In other words, there are no general theories of processes of which evaluation is a part in regard to counselling interventions. These processes are only considered in methodological terms as a measurement procedure.
It seems equally strange that we recognize certain theories as valid, on the one hand, but maintain that interventions based on them are not evidence based until the interventions are proven effective, on the other.
This is just one example of what Hammersley described as the difficult relationship between theory and evidence.
Efficacy and effectiveness studies have an appeal to common sense, that is, that the desired outcome is a direct effect of the intervention. However, these studies rarely address the one-to-one reasoning that is implied by them. Evaluating vocational counselling is not analogous to evaluating the repair of an automobile. Counselling is different and substantially more than what is captured in a simple instrumental cause and effect relationship.
Thus, an integrated approach to the evaluation of vocational counselling has to reflect everyday thinking and, at the same time, account for theory and empirical research.
Additionally, we expect that everyday thinking will be represented in descriptions of actions, projects, and career, but not in their explanations. For example, Holland suggested that society is interested in outcomes not processes in vocational counselling. Clearly, the focus on the evaluation of outcomes is supported by efforts to establish evidence-based practice as the gold standard for practitioners.
As well, the evaluation of outcomes is often linked to quantitative evaluation, where assessing the dimension of meaning is difficult.
Hammersley showed that some of the traditional problems of the relationship between theory and evidence could be addressed successfully in qualitative research. However, this position is implicitly supported by the assumption that all ethical and responsible counsellors evaluate as they go along, using a range of criteria including those informed by common sense. The importance attributed to common sense is enhanced further by the fear that quantitative evaluation will not address criteria of meaning and worth.
In order to soften the hard boundaries between these two attitudes, that is, evaluation based on common sense and traditional quantitative evaluation, we look back at the roots of the division between research and evaluation and then propose a new integrative approach.
Although these domains developed separately, they are closer today where research methods are used in evaluation and evaluation is seen as an important part of research programs. Clearly, the criterion of worth that evaluation brings with it is important to vocational counselling. Furthermore, this criterion opens the door to our consideration of qualia , which Jackson described as those features of our experience that, to a degree, are ineffable. For example, if a person has never experienced first hand being understood deeply in counselling, he or she may find it difficult to describe what it is like, even though able to enunciate the characteristics of empathy.
No amount of information suffices for the experiential knowledge of a phenomenon. Qualia has been conceptualized as being different from natural phenomena, that is, it refers to a quality. Taken to the next step, qualia can be seen as not only the sensed and perceived quality from the subjective point of view, but also captured in the social meaning that is part of shared social knowledge, and the understanding of vocational counselling from the systematic perspective of professionals.
Evaluation suggests judging in light of the criterion of quality. The challenge of proposing an integrated view is to bring the natural phenomena of vocational counselling together with aspects of consciousness suggested by qualia and represented in the intentionality of actors, individually, jointly, and as professionals.
The processes and outcomes of vocational guidance are pointed to by those involved in them and those who observe them. Intentionality also serves to integrate noema , and noesis , that is, an experienced phenomenon such as the vocational counselling interview and its mode of being experienced such as the interview being experienced as relating, empathizing, or interpreting Sharoff, Integrating a professional-scientific view with qualia and intentionality, presented here very briefly, took a long time to develop in the philosophy of science and is still only seldom encountered in educational and vocational guidance research and evaluation.
They may not appear central for developing counselling interventions but they are central for the integration of the various conceptualizations in counselling theory and research, intervention, and ultimately, their evaluation.
When evaluation is added to this mix, as of course it must be, the challenge is keener. Our view is that the intentional stance including qualia , intentionality, noema and noesis can serve as a point of departure for addressing this challenge.
It led us to develop an integrative model. This framework for how people understand and make sense of human behaviour looks to the goals of action and other action processes rather than the causes of behaviour for understanding. The assumed or understood goal helps observers define a unit of action with a beginning and an end. Such a unit can also be the focus of professional observers and scientists.
This also is the case when vocational and career issues are concerned. Furthermore, in a social or a shared view, intentionality is captured by descriptive and evaluative concepts which are interwoven in meaningful narratives. In this way, evaluation is an inherent part of the conceptualization of goal-directed processes at various levels. Thus, evaluation can benefit from an approach that incorporates such a conceptualization.
In doing so, we offer the possibility of merging evaluation with these ongoing processes, making evaluation an integrated part of them. These discussions are not new in scientific discourse or in the vocational counselling literature. Rather, heretofore they have been framed differently. It extends to longer periods of time, using the constructs of project and career. Action itself refers to the short-term intentional goal-directed behaviour of persons.
Cooking a meal might consist of one or more goal-directed actions. A counselling session with a client might consist of one or more joint goal-directed actions. When several discrete actions that occur over a mid-length period of time are constructed as having common goals, we consider them a project. Adhering to a special diet for a period of time might be considered a project. A counselling project might become an important part of the vocational career of the client and the work with a particular client might become an important episode in the career of the counsellor.
Thus, the constructs of action, project, and career, while not always used explicitly in this way, are represented in the conventional everyday descriptions of ongoing behaviour and in the subjective reports of the persons engaged in them. We can also observe these processes in a systematic manner. These joint and social processes refer to the joint actions of those involved in them and the embedding of these actions in socially constructed projects and careers.
Joint actions encompass the individual intentions a person may bring to the action as well as the intentions that are generated with the action.
Shotter suggested that joint action captures an intentionality that is not fully accounted for by the individual intentions of the participants. It is important to keep in mind that when talking about actions, projects, and career, we always imply three perspectives to understand them—the social perspectives of lay persons, the subjective view of the participants, and the systematic view of professionals.
Professional counselors apply a variety of clinical approaches in their work, and there are hundreds of clinical counseling approaches to choose from. To answer that question, it is first necessary to understand that no one counseling approach is better than the rest. That is because counseling approaches are based upon theories about human function and change as opposed to hard evidence. Determining whether one counseling approach works better than another is difficult, because there are so many variables to consider in the counseling process. For example, if we try to compare the effectiveness of two counselors applying the same theoretical model, there can be major differences in the counseling outcome due to differences in the clients' histories and situations, differences in the counselors' communication styles, and even differences in client and counselor mood on the day of the comparison. Such differences are hard to control for experimentally, thus making it almost impossible to prove that one approach to counseling is the absolute best way. Without such proof, it becomes the responsibility of counselors to do all they can to see that the treatment model s they apply are the best ones to address each client's needs.
In the context of current research in, and calls for, evidence-based practice, an action theory perspective is proposed for the evaluation of vocational counselling and other career guidance interventions. The proposition of an action theory perspective, which is based on the common understanding of human experience as being goal-directed, is made in light of several issues in the philosophy of science relevant to evaluation, including the role accorded common sense, the tension between evaluating processes and outcomes, how meaning is represented, how quality is judged, and the place of the intentionality of human agents. The specifics of this integrative approach for evaluation include the continuity of action, project, and career, as well as goals, functional steps, and behavioural and other elements that comprise them. These systems operate in vocational counselling itself, as well as in other systems of which counselling is a part. The research evidence on vocational counselling reflects the goal-directed processes that the perspective enunciates.
PDF | Psychoanalytic Approach; Behavioral Approach - Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is based on the principles of learning theory. such varied spheres of life as child guidance, parent/child counseling, marital and.
Guidance counseling , byname counseling and guidance , the process of helping individuals discover and develop their educational, vocational, and psychological potentialities and thereby to achieve an optimal level of personal happiness and social usefulness. It is implicit in the philosophy of counseling that these objectives are complementary rather than conflicting. The function of those who guide children and young people is not to effect a compromise between the requirements of individuals on the one hand and the demands of the community on the other.
Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health. Some unifying themes among counseling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, person—environment interactions, educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities. The term "counselling" is of American origin, coined by Carl Rogers , who, lacking a medical qualification was prevented from calling his work psychotherapy. During the war, the U.
June 01, by Counseling Staff. Theoretical approaches are an understandably integral part of the therapeutic process. But with so many different methods out there, how do you know which counseling approach works best for you? These theories are integrated throughout the curriculum of Counseling Northwestern and are built into a foundation grounded in the psychodynamic perspective.
Keywords: group guidance, group counseling, theory, technology, implementation. Presented: December 16, International Seminar and.
Learning Skills:. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. There are a number of different approaches used by professional counsellors. Perhaps the three main approaches are psychodynamic, humanistic and behavioural. Each of these has a different theory and ideas underpinning it, and the therapists and counsellors using each will approach problems and issues in different ways. These three main approaches each support a number of individual therapies.
У меня черный пояс по дзюдо. Беккер поморщился. - Предпочитаю вид спорта, в котором я могу выиграть. - Победа любой ценой? - улыбнулась Сьюзан. Защитник Джорджтауна перехватил опасную передачу, и по трибунам пронесся одобрительный гул. Сьюзан наклонилась к Дэвиду и шепнула ему на ухо: - Доктор.
Сьюзан понимала, что сегодня любопытство Хейла может привести к большим неприятностям, поэтому быстро приняла решение. - Это диагностика, - сказала она, взяв на вооружение версию коммандера. Хейл остановился: - Диагностика? - В голосе его слышалось недоверие. - Ты тратишь на это субботу, вместо того чтобы развлекаться с профессором. - Его зовут Дэвид.
- Он открыл жалюзи. - Все еще темно? - спросила Мидж. Но Бринкерхофф не ответил, лишившись дара речи. То, что он увидел, невозможно было себе представить.
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Theories of Counseling. A. Psychoanalytical Theory (Sigmund Freud). 1. View of Human Nature a. Freud's view of human nature is considered to be dynamic.