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Handbook Of Photovoltaic Science And Engineering Pdf

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Efficiency is an important matter in the photovoltaic PV conversion of solar energybecause the sun is a source of power whose density is not very low, so it gives someexpectations on the feasibility of its generalised cost-effective use in electric power pro-duction. However, this density is not so high as to render this task easy. After a quarterof a century of attempting it, cost still does not allow a generalised use of this conver-sion technology. Efficiency forecasts have been carried out from the very beginning of PV con-version to guide the research activity. In solar cells the efficiency is strongly related tothe generation of electronhole pairs caused by the light, and their recombination beforebeing delivered to the external circuit at a certain voltage.

Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering

Efficiency is an important matter in the photovoltaic PV conversion of solar energybecause the sun is a source of power whose density is not very low, so it gives someexpectations on the feasibility of its generalised cost-effective use in electric power pro-duction.

However, this density is not so high as to render this task easy. After a quarterof a century of attempting it, cost still does not allow a generalised use of this conver-sion technology. Efficiency forecasts have been carried out from the very beginning of PV con-version to guide the research activity. In solar cells the efficiency is strongly related tothe generation of electronhole pairs caused by the light, and their recombination beforebeing delivered to the external circuit at a certain voltage.

This recombination is due toa large variety of mechanisms and cannot be easily linked to the material used to makethe cell. Nevertheless, already in Lofersky [1] had established an empirical link thatallowed him to predict which materials were most promising for solar cell fabrication. In , Shockley and Queisser [2] pointed out that the ultimate recombinationmechanisms impossible to avoid was just the detailed balance counterpart of thegeneration mechanisms.

This allowed them to determine the maximum efficiency to beexpected from a solar cell. This efficiency limit Many of them are not absorbed, and the energy ofmany of the absorbed ones is only poorly exploited. Revisiting the topic of efficiency limits is pertinent because today there are renewedattempts to invent and develop novel concepts in solar cells sometimes known as.

Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. Edited by A. Luque and S. The oldest ofthem, and well established today, is the use of multijunction solar cells, to be studied indetail in Chapter 9 of this book.

However, novel attempts are favoured by the generaladvancement of science and technology that puts new tools in the inventors hands, suchas nanotechnology, not available just a decade ago. Conventional solar cells are semiconductor devices in which an interaction betweenelectrons and holes is produced by absorption of light photons in order to produceelectric work. Unlike solar thermal converters, they can operate at room temperature. In this chapter we shall start by presenting some of the irreversible thermodynamicbackground regarding the photonelectron interaction.

Special attention is paid to theconditions for complying with the second law of the thermodynamics as a guide for newdevice inventors. This thermodynamic approach will give us the efficiency that a certain solar con-verter can obtain under certain ideal conditions. This will be applied not only to the presentsolar cells but also to a number of proposed new converters, some of them actually triedexperimentally and some not. The solar converter theory developed in this chapter looks very different fromthe one presented in Chapter 3 and is complementary to it.

There the solar cell will beanalysed in a solid-state physics context, on the basis of electric carrier transport andrecombination, taking into account the subtleties that a given material may impose.

Inthis chapter all materials will be considered ideal, entropy-producing mechanisms will bereduced to those inherent to the concept being studied and all other mechanisms will beignored.

In this way, the efficiencies given in this chapter are to be considered as upperbounds of the solar cells studied both in Chapter 3 and the remaining chapters of thisbook. The lower values found there are not necessarily due to poor technology. They maybe fundamental when linked to the actual materials and processes used to manufacturereal solar cells.

However, they are not fundamental in the sense that other materials andprocesses could, in principle, be found where different materials or process limitationswill apply, which perhaps might be less restrictive.

Thermodynamics defines a state function for a system in equilibrium. This function can bethe entropy, the internal energy, the canonical grand potential, the enthalpy and so on, allof them mutually equivalent, containing the same information of the system and relatedto each other through the Legendres transformation [4]. The variables used to describethe macroscopic state of a system are divided into extensive volume U , number ofparticles N , entropy S, internal energy E, etc.

A number of relationships may be written withthem. For instance,. For our purposes it is convenient to choose the grand potential as our preferred statefunction. It is the state function that describes the state of a system when the electro-chemical potential, the volume and the temperature are chosen as independent variables. It is also the Legendre transform of the energy with respect to the temperature and theelectrochemical potential:. Other thermodynamic variables that characterise the system in equilibrium can beobtained from the grand potential as derivatives.

Hence, the number of particles, entropyand pressure of the system under consideration can be obtained as. For describing systems in non-equilibrium, the system under study is assumed to besubdivided into small subsystems each one comprising an elementary volume in thespace-of-phases2 x, y, z, vx , vy , vz and having a size sufficient to allow the definitionof thermodynamic magnitudes in it.

Within such volumes, the subsystems are assumedto be in equilibrium. Thus, thermodynamic magnitudes are dependent on the positionr. For describing the system in non-equilibrium, it is necessary to introduce the con-cept of thermodynamic current densities [6], jx. They are related to the extensive variablesX and are defined for those elementary bodies with velocity v at the point r as follows:.

The symbol is the divergence operator. Equations 4. A certainelementary subsystem or body can draw energy from or release energy to another bodyclose to it, but the first law of thermodynamics states that the sum of the energies generatedat all the i elementary bodies at a given position r must be zero, that is,.

In the same way, the entropy generated by an elementary body can possibly be neg-ative, but the second law of thermodynamics, as stated by Prigogine [7], determinesthat the sum of all the entropy generated by all the bodies, irr, must be non-negativeeverywhere. It is illustrative to have a look at the sources for entropy production.

Using equation 4. Introducing equations 4. It contains terms involv-ing energy generation from another subsystem: and transfer from the surroundings:. Log in Get Started. Download for free Report this document. Embed Size px x x x x Revisiting the topic of efficiency limits is pertinent because today there are renewedattempts to invent and develop novel concepts in solar cells sometimes known as Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. The right-hand equality repre- sents a property proven with generality [5].

Equation 4. It contains terms involv-ing energy generation from another subsystem: and transfer from the surroundings: 3 The linear unbounded operator applied to the vector A.

Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering 2nd edition

All topics relating to the photovoltaic PV industry are discussed with contributions by distinguished international experts in the field. Significant new coverage includes: - three completely new chapters and six chapters with new authors - device structures, processing, and manufacturing options for the three major thin film PV technologies - high performance approaches for multijunction, concentrator, and space applications - new types of organic polymer and dye-sensitized solar cells - economic analysis of various policy options to stimulate PV growth including effect of public and private investment Detailed treatment covers: - scientific basis of the photovoltaic effect and solar cell operation - the production of solar silicon and of silicon-based solar cells and modules - how choice of semiconductor materials and their production influence costs and performance - making measurements on solar cells and modules and how to relate results under standardised test conditions to real outdoor performance - photovoltaic system installation and operation of components such as inverters and batteries. Encompassing a review of past work and the fundamentals in solar electric science, this is a leading reference and invaluable resource for all practitioners, consultants, researchers and students in the PV industry. Contents: About the Editors. List of Contributors.

All topics relating to the photovoltaic PV industry are discussed with contributions by distinguished international experts in the field. Significant new coverage includes: three completely new chapters and six chapters with new authors device structures, processing, and manufacturing options for the three major thin film PV technologies high performance approaches for multijunction, concentrator, and space applications new types of organic polymer and dye-sensitized solar cells economic analysis of various policy options to stimulate PV growth including effect of public and private investment Detailed treatment covers: scientific basis of the photovoltaic effect and solar cell operation the production of solar silicon and of silicon-based solar cells and modules how choice of semiconductor materials and their production influence costs and performance making measurements on solar cells and modules and how to relate results under standardised test conditions to real outdoor performance photovoltaic system installation and operation of components such as inverters and batteries. Dude, same thing happened to me. Since sound cannot take shape or a specific form, it molds itself to its environment. He knows not to go out the front door and not to leave the porch in the back, and that and allowed the science, but not to sleep on the pillows or sheets. I thought that was engineering. Photovoltaic not engineering dismisses differing viewpoints, he seeks to criminalized them.


Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering / edited by Antonio Luque and Steven Hegedus. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN


McEvoy's Handbook of Photovoltaics

Semester: L Anotation: The course discusses the most important problems of principle, technology of production and final use of photovoltaic systems for power generation. Topics: Solar energy and basic principles of conversion. Photovoltaic effect, photovoltaic cells.

Embed Size px x x x x All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system ortransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning orotherwise, except under the terms of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act or under the terms ofa licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP,UK, without the permission in writing of the Publisher.

Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics, Third Edition, is a 'benchmark' publication for those involved in the design, manufacture and use of these devices. This fully revised handbook includes brand new sections on smart grids, net metering and the modeling of photovoltaic systems, as well as fully revised content on developments in photovoltaic applications, the economics of PV manufacturing and updated chapters on solar cell function, raw materials, photovoltaic standards, calibration and testing, all with new examples and case studies. The editor has assembled internationally-respected contributors from industry and academia around the world to make this a truly global reference. It is essential reading for electrical engineers, designers of systems, installers, architects, policymakers and physicists working with photovoltaics.

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Table of contents

 Может быть, все это чепуха, - сказала Мидж, - но в статистических данных по шифровалке вдруг вылезло что-то несуразное. Я надеюсь, что ты мне все объяснишь. - В чем же проблема? - Джабба сделал глоток своей жгучей приправы. - Передо мной лежит отчет, из которого следует, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ бьется над каким-то файлом уже восемнадцать часов и до сих пор не вскрыл шифр. Джабба обильно полил приправой кусок пирога на тарелке. - Что-что.

ГЛАВА 21 Голос американца, звонившего Нуматаке по прямой линии, казался взволнованным: - Мистер Нуматака, в моем распоряжении не больше минуты. - Хорошо. Полагаю, вы получили обе копии ключа. - Вышла небольшая заминка, - сказал американец. - Это невозможно! - рявкнул Нуматака.

Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering

 - Нужно найти ключ Хейла.

То, что она увидела пониже его живота, оказалось совсем крошечным. Немец схватил ее и нетерпеливо стянул с нее рубашку. Его толстые пальцы принялись методично, сантиметр за сантиметром, ощупывать ее тело.

Мы столкнулись с врагами, которые, как мне казалось, никогда не посмеют бросить нам вызов. Я говорю о наших собственных гражданах. О юристах, фанатичных борцах за гражданские права, о Фонде электронных границ - они все приняли в этом участие, но дело в другом. Дело в людях.

Что помогло бы мне? - сказал Беккер. Росио покачала головой: - Это. Но вам ее не найти. Севилья - город большой и очень обманчивый.

Сквозь строй дважды отверг этот файл. Линейная мутация.

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