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Bones Of Head And Neck Pdf

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In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the anterior triangle of the neck — its borders, contents and subdivisions. It can be subdivided further into four triangles — which are detailed later on in this chapter.

Bones of the Skull

Janelle E. Meuten, Katharine Powers, David E. Frost and Barry D. Skin Lines and Lines of Langer. Skin of the Face. Lower Face. Mandibular Surgical Approaches. Extraoral Surgical Approaches. Risdon and Submandibular Approaches. Intraoral Surgical Approaches.

Parasymphysis and Body. Muscles of Facial Expression. Muscles of Mastication. Suprahyoid Muscles. Infrahyoid Muscles. Soft Palate Musculature. Pharyngeal Musculature. Arterial Blood Supply to the Head and Neck.

External Carotid Artery. Veins of the Head and Neck. Internal Jugular Vein. Common Facial Vein. Anterior Facial Vein. Retromandibular Vein.

External Jugular Vein. Anterior Jugular Vein. Neurologic Anatomy. Trigeminal Nerve. Facial Nerve. Hypoglossal Nerve. Regional Anatomy. Orbital Anatomy.

Orbital Nerves. Nasal Anatomy. External Nasal Anatomy. Nasal Cavity Anatomy. Parotid Region. Parotid Gland.

Submandibular Gland. Floor of the Mouth. Because traumatic injuries disrupt the anatomy, the surgeon who is to repair and replace these traumatized structures must have an in-depth knowledge of normal anatomy. In addition, the operator must consider possible variations of normal and other associated structures that may be in close relationship to the traumatized area.

Although numerous texts have been written on basic anatomy, 1— 11 it is thought that for completeness, this textbook should include a review of major head and neck anatomy. Details on specific problems and treatment modalities are found in the appropriate chapters. It is the intent of this chapter to discuss the general anatomy, its inherent relationships, and some technical problem areas that should be considered in the management of traumatic facial injuries.

The natural skin lines and wrinkles are major factors in determining the final soft tissue aesthetic result for the patient with facial trauma. The character and aesthetics of a scar are affected by its relationship to the location and direction of normal skin lines. The natural skin lines and wrinkle lines are different from the lines of Langer, which denote the direction of the collagen fibers within the dermis.

Langer believed that the skin was less extensible in the direction of the lines of tension that cross them. It is therefore recommended that elective incisions be made in or parallel to the lines of facial expression or the natural skin lines, when possible Fig. Old scar lines and hairlines can also direct a surgeon to the most appropriate placement of an incision.

Considerations as the ethnicity of the patient must also be taken into account because hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation issues might arise. The scalp is made up of five layers, three of which are closely bound together. These are the skin, dense connective tissue, and galea aponeurotica. Beneath these layers are the loose connective tissue and the periosteum or pericranial layer.

This firm union and the extensive blood supply frequently make bleeding excessive and often difficult to control rapidly with hemostats. Because of the nature of the loose connective tissue layer, dissection of the scalp is rather easy in this tissue plane. In a similar manner, however, the effusion of fluid spreads rapidly in this plane, leading to a boglike edema.

From Aehlert B: Paramedic practice today , St. The innervation of the scalp comes from the trigeminal nerve anteriorly and laterally and from the cervical nerves C2 and C3 posteriorly.

In the supraorbital region, the superior orbital branch of the trigeminal nerve passes through a notch or foramen to innervate this area of the scalp. The supratrochlear nerve is located slightly medially and innervates the upper lid and the medial area of the forehead.

As with most areas of the anatomy, when the skeleton makes angles or muscles insert, there is a denser attachment of the skin and soft tissue. In the scalp, this attachment is most notable in the glabella and supraorbital regions. The skin of the face becomes specialized in the area of the eyelids, which are comprised of two structural lamellae: the external lamellae formed by the orbicularis muscle and its overlying skin and the internal lamellae of the tarsal plate and conjunctiva.

The skin of the nose is tightly attached to the lower lateral cartilage in the tip area. In other areas, the skin is less tightly adhered to the underlying infrastructure.

The skin is thin in the nasal root and tip areas and thicker in the supratip region. The bones will be considered in the traditional facial thirds Fig. B, Lateral view of skull. Facial thirds are noted. The maxilla, zygoma, lacrimal, nasal, palatine, inferior nasal concha, and vomer bones are collectively referred to as the middle third of the facial skeleton. The bones will be discussed separately, but their interconnections are of utmost importance. The maxilla Figs.

Each hemimaxilla contains a large pyramid-shaped body, the maxillary sinus antrum of Highmore , and four prominent processes—the frontal, alveolar, zygomatic, and palatine processes. B, Lateral aspect of maxilla. From Liebgott B: The anatomical basis of dentistry, ed 3, St. Louis, , Mosby. The body of the maxilla is hollow and contains the maxillary sinus. The anterior wall of the sinus is the facial surface of the maxilla and is usually thin.

The medial wall is the lateral nasal wall. The sinus opens superiorly and medially into the nasal cavity at the semilunar hiatus in the middle meatus. The superior wall or roof of the sinus is the orbital floor, and the floor of the sinus is the palatine and alveolar processes of the maxilla. The frontal process arises from the anteromedial corner of the body and articulates with the frontal bone to form the medial orbital rim.

The medial portion of the frontal process fuses with the nasal bone and may therefore be termed the nasofrontal process. Posteriorly, the process articulates with the lacrimal bone to form the anterior portion of the medial orbital wall. This area of articulation with the frontal bone, nasal bone, and lacrimal bone is prominent in the facial skeleton and is frequently fractured by blunt trauma. The inferiorly extending portion of the maxilla is the alveolar process, which contains the maxillary teeth.

The teeth are key to the accurate management of many midfacial fractures. The alveolar process may be fractured by direct trauma and therefore may be functionally separate from other portions of the maxilla. The palatine process arises horizontally from the lower edge of the medial surface of the body. It joins the opposite process and forms the major portion of the hard palate. The zygomatic process of the maxilla arises from the anterolateral corner of the maxilla and articulates laterally with the zygoma.

Together, they form the inferior orbital rim and the greatest portion of the orbital floor. The infraorbital foramen is on the anterior surface of the zygomatic process of the maxilla. Surgical Note: The classic Le Fort I fracture passes through the anterior wall of the maxilla, extending posteriorly to the pterygoid plates. It is important to remember that this is a paired bone and, even though it is fused in the midline, in adults it behaves like two separate bones when manipulated.

It may often be separated along the midpalatal suture in the more extreme facial fractures. The zygoma zygomatic bone, malar bone is a paired bone that makes up the essence of the cheek prominence Fig.

Bones of the Skull

A comprehensive collection of clinical examination OSCE guides that include step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A comprehensive collection of OSCE guides to common clinical procedures, including step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A collection of communication skills guides, for common OSCE scenarios, including history taking and information giving. A collection of data interpretation guides to help you learn how to interpret various laboratory and radiology investigations. A comprehensive collection of medical revision notes that cover a broad range of clinical topics.


PDF | The cranium (Latin term for skull) is the most cephalad aspect of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 22 bones and divided into two.


Cranial Bones Overview

Janelle E. Meuten, Katharine Powers, David E. Frost and Barry D.

NCBI Bookshelf. Ghadeer H. AlJulaih ; Ritesh G. Authors Ghadeer H. AlJulaih 1 ; Ritesh G.

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Cranial Bones Overview

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Oct 11,

Your skull provides structure to your head and face while also protecting your brain. The bones in your skull can be divided into the cranial bones, which form your cranium, and facial bones, which make up your face. Your cranial bones are held together by unique joints called sutures, which are made of thick connective tissue.

Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer. This chapter gives an overview of the important structures, muscles, fasciae , and vessels arteries , veins , lymph , nerves of the head and neck region. The brain , one of the most important organs, is protected by the skull , both of which are covered in other articles. There are also individual articles for the organs of perception as well as for the thyroid gland , the salivary glands, teeth and oral cavity. The head and neck region is the beginning of the respiratory and digestive tract, both of which also have their own articles.

10: Applied Surgical Anatomy of the Head and Neck

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Bones are an important part of the musculoskeletal system. This article, the first in a two-part series on the skeletal system, reviews the anatomy and physiology of bone. The skeletal system is formed of bones and cartilage, which are connected by ligaments to form a framework for the remainder of the body tissues. This article, the first in a two-part series on the structure and function of the skeletal system, reviews the anatomy and physiology of bone. Understanding the structure and purpose of the bone allows nurses to understand common pathophysiology and consider the most-appropriate steps to improve musculoskeletal health. Citation: Walker J Skeletal system 1: the anatomy and physiology of bones. Nursing Times [online]; 2,

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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Feb 10, SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search.

Your skull provides structure to your head and face while also protecting your brain. The bones in your skull can be divided into the cranial bones, which form your cranium, and facial bones, which make up your face. Your cranial bones are held together by unique joints called sutures, which are made of thick connective tissue.

The mandible , located inferiorly in the facial skeleton, is the largest and strongest bone of the face. It forms the lower jaw and acts as a receptacle for the lower teeth. It also articulates on either side with the temporal bone, forming the temporomandibular joint.

Он застонал. Проклятые испанцы начинают службу с причастия. ГЛАВА 92 Сьюзан начала спускаться по лестнице в подсобное помещение. Густые клубы пара окутывали корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА, ступеньки лестницы были влажными от конденсации, она едва не упала, поскользнувшись.

Старшие должностные лица АНБ имели право разбираться со своими кризисными ситуациями, не уведомляя об этом исполнительную власть страны. АНБ было единственной разведывательной организацией США, освобожденной от обязанности отчитываться перед федеральным правительством. Стратмор нередко пользовался этой привилегией: он предпочитал творить свое волшебство в уединении.

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