File Name: biogas from waste and renewable resources an introduction .zip
Biogas plant is a facility to produce biogas consisting of a reactor and auxiliary systems. The conditions for the existence of methane-producing bacteria are artificially created and maintained in the reactor of a biogas plant.
Biogas is the mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen anaerobically , primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide.
Biogas is a mixture of methane, CO 2 and small quantities of other gases produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter in an oxygen-free environment. The precise composition of biogas depends on the type of feedstock and the production pathway; these include the following main technologies:. Biogas can be used directly to produce electricity and heat or as an energy source for cooking.
Biogas is a mixture of methane, CO 2 and small quantities of other gases produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter in an oxygen-free environment. The precise composition of biogas depends on the type of feedstock and the production pathway; these include the following main technologies:.
Biogas can be used directly to produce electricity and heat or as an energy source for cooking. It is indistinguishable from natural gas and so can be used without the need for any changes in transmission and distribution infrastructure or end-user equipment, and is fully compatible for use in natural gas vehicles. Note: Only biomethane is considered suitable for use in the transport sector.
A wide variety of feedstocks can be used to produce biogas. For this report, the different individual types of residue or waste were grouped into four broad feedstock categories: crop residues; animal manure; the organic fraction of MSW, including industrial waste; and wastewater sludge.
Specific energy crops, i. Using waste and residues as feedstocks avoids the land-use issues associated with energy crops. Energy crops also require fertiliser typically produced from fossil fuels , which needs to be taken into account when assessing the life-cycle emissions from different biogas production pathways. Using waste and residues as feedstocks can capture methane that could otherwise escape to the atmosphere as they decompose. Most biomethane production comes from upgrading biogas, so the feedstocks are the same as those described above.
However, the gasification route to biomethane can use woody biomass in addition to MSW and agricultural residues as a feedstock, which consists of residues from forest management and wood processing. The development of biogas has been uneven across the world, as it depends not only on the availability of feedstocks but also on policies that encourage its production and use. Europe is the largest producer of biogas today.
Other countries such as Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands have actively promoted biogas production. Moreover, the Chinese National Development and Reform Commission issued a guidance document in late specifically on biogas industrialisation and upgrading to biomethane, supporting also the use of biomethane in the transport sector. There is also growing interest in biogas production from agricultural waste, since domestic livestock markets are responsible for almost one-third of methane emissions in the United States USDA, The United States is also leading the way globally in the use of biomethane in the transport sector, as a result of both state and federal support.
Around half of the remaining production comes from developing countries in Asia, notably Thailand and India. Remuneration via the Clean Development Mechanism CDM was a key factor underpinning this growth, particularly between and The development of new biogas projects fell sharply after as the value of emission reduction credits awarded under the CDM dropped. Thailand produces biogas from the waste streams of its cassava starch sector, biofuel industry and pig farms.
In addition to these subsidies, credit facilities have made progress in a few countries, notably a recent lease-to-own arrangement in Kenya that financed almost half of the digester installations in ter Heegde, In recent years, deployment in the United States and some European countries has slowed, mainly because of changes in policy support, although growth has started to pick up in other markets such as China and Turkey.
A substantial part of this range lies above the cost of generation from wind and utility-scale solar photovoltaic PV , which have come down sharply in recent years. The relatively high costs of biogas power generation mean that the transition from feed-in tariffs to technology-neutral renewable electricity auction frameworks such as power purchase agreements in many countries could limit the future prospects for electricity-only biogas plants.
However, unlike wind and solar PV, biogas plants can operate in a flexible manner and so provide balancing and other ancillary services to the electricity network. Recognising the value of these services would help to spur future deployment prospects for biogas plants. Certain industrial subsectors, such as the food and drink and chemicals, produce wet waste with a high organic content, which is a suitable feedstock for anaerobic digestion.
For the moment, a relatively small but growing share of the biogas produced worldwide is upgraded to biomethane. This area has significant potential for further growth, although — as outlined in subsequent sections of this report — this is heavily contingent on the strength and design of policies aimed at decarbonising gas supply in different parts of the world.
The biomethane industry is currently very small, although it is generating growing amounts of interest in several countries for its potential to deliver clean energy to a wide array of end users, especially when this can be done using existing infrastructure.
Currently around 3. Countries outside Europe and North America are catching up quickly, with the number of upgrading facilities in Brazil, China and India tripling since Biomethane represents about 0. For example, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom have all introduced support for biomethane in transport. Subnational schemes are also emerging, such as low-carbon fuel standards in the US state of California and in British Columbia, Canada.
Another option would be to store it underground, in which case the biomethane would be a CO 2 -negative source of energy. As noted above, the alternative method to produce biomethane is through thermal gasification of biomass. There are several biomass gasification plants currently in operation, but these are mostly at demonstration scale producing relatively small volumes. Some of these plants have struggled to achieve stable operation, as a result of the variable quality and quantity of feedstock.
Since this is a less mature technology than anaerobic digestion, thermal gasification arguably offers greater potential for technological innovation and cost reductions. Prospects would be enhanced if incumbent gas producers were to commit resources to its development, as it would appear a better fit with their knowledge and technical expertise. The remainder provides methane for a variety of local end uses.
Modern biomass relies on more advanced technologies, mainly in electricity generation and industrial applications, which use upgraded fuels such as woodchips and pellets. Traditional use refers to the burning of solid biomass, such as wood, charcoal, agricultural residues and animal dung, for cooking or heating using basic technologies such as three-stone fires. With low conversion efficiencies and significant negative health impacts from indoor air pollution, many developing economies are trying to shift consumption away from traditional use.
The differentiation between traditional and modern does not apply for liquid and gaseous bioenergy, since both are produced using advanced technologies. But there are reasons to believe that these low-carbon gases could gain a firmer foothold in the future.
Policies can help to unlock these benefits, but much will depend on how much biogas and biomethane is available and at what cost.
These are the questions addressed in the next section. Thank you for subscribing. You can unsubscribe at any time by clicking the link at the bottom of any IEA newsletter. IEA Skip navigation. Close Search Submit. Fuel report — March Overview Abstract Introduction Key findings An introduction to biogas and biomethane Sustainable supply potential and costs Biogas supply potential and costs Biomethane supply potential and costs The outlook for biogas and biomethane to Outlook for biogas Focus: The role of biogas as a clean cooking fuel Outlook for biomethane Focus: Biomethane and the future of gas infrastructure Implications for policy makers and industry Investment Energy security Reductions in CO2 and methane Considerations for policy makers Annex.
Cite report Close dialog. Share this report Close dialog. The precise composition of biogas depends on the type of feedstock and the production pathway; these include the following main technologies: Biodigesters : These are airtight systems e.
Contaminants and moisture are usually removed prior to use of the biogas. Landfill gas recovery systems : The decomposition of municipal solid waste MSW under anaerobic conditions at landfill sites produces biogas. This can be captured using pipes and extraction wells along with compressors to induce flow to a central collection point.
Wastewater treatment plants: These plants can be equipped to recover organic matter, solids, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from sewage sludge. With further treatment, the sewage sludge can be used as an input to produce biogas in an anaerobic digester. Under these conditions, the biomass is converted into a mixture of gases, mainly carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane sometimes collectively called syngas. To produce a pure stream of biomethane, this syngas is cleaned to remove any acidic and corrosive components.
The methanation process then uses a catalyst to promote a reaction between the hydrogen and carbon monoxide or CO 2 to produce methane. Any remaining CO 2 or water is removed at the end of this process. Crop residues: Residues from the harvest of wheat, maize, rice, other coarse grains, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean and other oilseeds.
This report included sequential crops, grown between two harvested crops as a soil management solution that helps to preserve the fertility of soil, retain soil carbon and avoid erosion; these do not compete for agricultural land with crops grown for food or feed.
Animal manure: From livestock including cattle, pigs, poultry and sheep. Organic fraction of MSW: Food and green waste e. MSW 1 also includes some industrial waste from the food-processing industry. Wastewater sludge: Semi-solid organic matter recovered in the form of sewage gas from municipal wastewater treatment plants.
They can provide the system benefits of natural gas storage, flexibility, high-temperature heat without the net carbon emissions. As economies decarbonise, this becomes a crucial attribute.
Biogas provides a sustainable supply of heat and power that can serve communities seeking local, decentralised sources of energy, as well as a valuable cooking fuel for developing countries. Biogas and biomethane can also play an important part in waste management, improving overall resource efficiency. Where it displaces gas transported or imported over long distances, biogas and biomethane also yield energy security benefits. Both biogas and biomethane can also be developed at scale through partnerships between the energy and agricultural industries.
By transforming a range of organic wastes into higher-value products, biogas and biomethane fit well into the concept of the circular economy. References MSW can either feed a biodigester or be disposed in landfill to produce landfill gas. Reference 1 Close dialog. MSW can either feed a biodigester or be disposed in landfill to produce landfill gas. Next Sustainable supply potential and costs. Subscription successful Close dialog.
Wiley Online Library Inhalt Probekapitel. Written as a practical introduction to biogas plant design and operation, the author covers both the biological and technical aspects of biogas generation, illustrated by numerous examples from real-life plants. Preis inkl. MwSt, zzgl. The leading book on the market just got better: With its unique approach covering all aspects of setting up and running a biogas plant, this new edition has been expanded to include recent advances in biomass processing.
Published in: Pages: The book includes detailed descriptions of all the process steps to be followed during the production of biogas, from the preparation of the suitable substrate to the use of biogas, the end product. Each individual stage is assessed and discussed in depth, taking the different aspects like application and potential into account. Biological, chemical, and engineering processes are detailed in the same way as apparatus, automatic control, and energy or safety engineering. With the help of this book, both laymen and experts should be able to learn or refresh their knowledge, which is presented concisely, simply, and clearly, with many illustrations.
Коммандер не сказал ни слова и, медленно наклонившись, поднял пейджер. Новых сообщений не. Сьюзан прочитала их. Стратмор в отчаянии нажал на кнопку просмотра.
Что же тогда случилось? - спросил Фонтейн. - Я думал, это вирус. Джабба глубоко вздохнул и понизил голос. - Вирусы, - сказал он, вытирая рукой пот со лба, - имеют привычку размножаться.
Итак, внизу у нас погибший Чатрукьян, - констатировал Стратмор. - Если мы вызовем помощь, шифровалка превратится в цирк. - Так что же вы предлагаете? - спросила Сьюзан. Она хотела только одного - поскорее уйти.
Но в них была только смерть. Смерть ее веры в. Любовь и честь были забыты.
Лейтенант вздохнул и сочувственно помотал головой. - Севильское солнце бывает безжалостным. Будьте завтра поосторожнее. - Спасибо, - сказал Беккер. - Я сегодня улетаю.
Зашифровал, используя этот самый метод. - Сейф Бигглмана, - протянула Сьюзан. Стратмор кивнул.
Корейское искусство самозащиты, тхеквондо, оказалось в большей мере смертоносным, нежели оборонительным. Военной службе пришел конец.
Но тебе там понравится. ГЛАВА 50 Фил Чатрукьян остановился в нескольких ярдах от корпуса ТРАНСТЕКСТА, там, где на полу белыми буквами было выведено: НИЖНИЕ ЭТАЖИ ШИФРОВАЛЬНОГО ОТДЕЛА ВХОД ТОЛЬКО ДЛЯ ЛИЦ СО СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫМ ДОПУСКОМ Чатрукьян отлично знал, что к этим лицам не принадлежит. Бросив быстрый взгляд на кабинет Стратмора, он убедился, что шторы по-прежнему задернуты. Сьюзан Флетчер минуту назад прошествовала в туалет, поэтому она ему тоже не помеха. Единственной проблемой оставался Хейл.
Расстроенный, Беккер повесил трубку. Провал. Мысль о том, что придется отстоять в очереди несколько часов, была невыносима. Время идет, старик канадец может куда-нибудь исчезнуть. Вполне вероятно, он решит поскорее вернуться в Канаду.
Но решил этого не делать. Сьюзан так и подумала. Старшие должностные лица АНБ имели право разбираться со своими кризисными ситуациями, не уведомляя об этом исполнительную власть страны. АНБ было единственной разведывательной организацией США, освобожденной от обязанности отчитываться перед федеральным правительством. Стратмор нередко пользовался этой привилегией: он предпочитал творить свое волшебство в уединении.
Сказал, чтобы вы обязательно нам позвонили. Я прав.