File Name: effect of technological development on urban and rural life .zip
G20 Japan. The current debate on global inequality and social cohesion has also recognized growing differences in living standards between urban and rural areas.
Elementary school students walk to class in Weaverville, California, August Given the changing nature of the rural economy, the lack of upward mobility in many rural communities, and the persistent gap in unemployment and poverty rates between metro and nonmetro counties, the United States needs to overhaul its current approach to rural development and create a new framework that builds resilient rural communities. This new framework must call for a complete change in mindset about what constitutes rural America, the assets within these diverse communities, and the struggles they face. Rethinking rural development policy will also require investing in these communities from the bottom up instead of the top down, empowering them to identify and leverage their existing assets and knowledge and to promote homegrown economic opportunities. As news outlets heralded record sustained economic growth in the United States following the Great Recession, many Americans still struggled to see evidence of this recovery in their own communities.
New technologies could be adequately introduced for an improved analysis aimed to the sustainable management and planning of the rural land, as well as its environment and landscape.
Nowadays, this analysis is easier and more complete through the use of powerful and reliable tools. Several changes can be considered to be as models of territorial development, useful for an appropriate planning of the human interventions in a rural area. Remote sensing techniques could be employed for the monitoring of agricultural land variation, while Geographical Information Systems are excellent tools for landscape modeling and three-dimensional analysis.
In this chapter, land-use changes in a rural area located in southern Italy were analyzed by comparing some historical cartographic supports with modern maps, in order to evaluate the morphological and vegetation variations of the agroforestry land during time. Moreover, a landscape analysis was conducted through the implementation of digital terrain models, which were enriched by draping land cover pictures over them.
These elaborations finally enabled an evaluation in a scenic way of the aesthetic quality of the agroforestry landscape, allowing a virtual jump back to time periods when digital aerial photography was not yet even possible. This multi-temporal analysis with the support of GIS techniques revealed to have a great potential for assessing and managing landscape diversity and changes of vegetation, as well as for planning sound interventions over the landscape structures.
Planning and managing the rural land and its environment are one of the most intriguing examples of technical challenge where a multidisciplinary approach plays a crucial role Picuno et al. The agricultural production, both food and nonfood, the social role of rural settlements, the state and diffusion of the infrastructural networks, and the rural architectonic heritage that in many countries constitutes a major positive value should be appropriately considered and synergistically interlaced for a sound planning of the agricultural biosystems.
Human activities impose a transformation of the extra-urban land that may lead to the modification of the frail equilibrium of whole ecosystems. Sound planning strategies should be therefore pursued, employing a multidisciplinary approach that should take into account geographical, environmental, and landscape factors as variables interacting among themselves and with the social and economic aspects.
In order to simultaneously analyze all these properties, tools able to manage, interpret, and integrate several data are necessary.
Extra-urban land planning must pursuit, as a main goal, environmental sustainability, since sustainable development has been perceived all over the world by social awareness and sensibility and is constantly been considered by new laws and regulations whose attempt is the natural resources protection.
In this scenario, an accurate analysis of performing variations and a global monitoring of ecosystems are necessary in order to propose environmental protection politics. The farmer as a producer has traditionally been in focus when changes in agricultural landscapes are studied. However, normally, the farmer is not the only decision-maker. Often, the farms leased land and the owner may be an equally important actor concerning landscape changes.
Farmers are important agents in rural landscape management, as they modify landscape elements to suit their needs. The industrialization and intensification of agriculture over the last 50 years had a negative impact on landscape diversity and habitat values. During the last two decades, farmers have become increasingly engaged in landscape activities, to maintain or create habitats on their property. For the sustainable development of rural settlements, at least four characteristics should be protected: balance between nature and built-up area, historic traditional entities, local communities, and the countryside as an own culture.
Geographical Information Systems GIS are excellent tools for landscape modeling and three-dimensional analysis. They allow an easy digitalization of geographical information and coverage structure, as well as they facilitate graphical representation. An evaluation of the aesthetic impact produced on the rural environment becomes therefore possible, paving the way for landscape simulations and possible minimizations of the landscape impact.
A specific landscape analysis conducted by a GIS approach has shown how positive results of the applied agronomic practices, in terms of CO 2 fixation, have been able to contrast heavy emissions of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere by urban settlements Capobianco et al.
Remote sensing techniques could be employed for the monitoring of agricultural land variation. A wide spread of crops covered with plastic can damage the visual landscape, although they are detectable through remote sensing techniques. Some scientific efforts were conducted in order to allow a better monitoring and planning of these uses. Using a field spectrometer, Levin et al. Carvajal et al. Classification accuracy was evaluated using multisource data, comparing results including and non-including wavelet texture analysis.
A methodology based on supervised classification of the image was found as the most adequate to the classification of crop shelters. According to this methodology, suitable classes were selected on the basis of signatures related to specific sample areas. The classification was then refined by using neighborhood and contiguity analysis algorithms. The results of the analysis allowed to recognize and localize the crop shelters and to quantify their planimetric area. The latter was also compared with the attributes of georeferenced feature classes based on visual recognition.
Finally, Capobianco and Picuno implemented remote sensing techniques aimed to the analysis of the rural land use, with special attention paid to greenhouse and other application of plastics in protected cultivation, inside a study area located near the coast border between the Italian regions of Basilicata and Apulia, where plastic in agriculture is widely used. The analysis was realized using Thematic Mapper of multi-temporal Landsat images through supervised classification, image processing, vectorization, and GIS tools.
For the study, band 7 2. The results that were obtained enable the possibility to create a routine in IDL and ENVI software for the autodetection of the plastic covers. Through the implementation of a digital terrain model DTM , enriched with the drape of land cover pictures, Capobianco et al. Solid modeling techniques, moreover, could contribute to the analysis and planning of the rural environment. The implementation of a digital terrain model DTM , enriched with the drape of land cover pictures, enables the evaluation in a scenic way of the morphological and vegetation variations of agroforestry landscape.
From the digitalization of historical cartography, enabling the analysis of the natural and anthropic changes of rural land using a Geographical Information System and image processing techniques, Tortora et al.
The digitalization of historical cartography, finally, allowed Picuno et al. Sound planning strategies should be pursued, employing a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account geographical, environmental, and landscape factors as variables interacting among themselves and with social and economic aspects Tortora et al.
Over recent years, different systems have been developed with the aim of providing support to policy makers in the field of agricultural development Van Delden et al.
According to this scenario, an accurate analysis of the performed variations and the global monitoring of all ecosystems are necessary to propose suitable environmental protection politics Picuno et al. The visualization of spatial information in the form of maps is critical to facilitating decision-making in environmental management Iosifescu-Enescu et al.
Moreover, the technical and spatial analysis methodologies that have been recently developed could ensure both the proper management and planning of land, especially if tailored to environmental protection and to efficient control of the agricultural and forestry resources.
Suitable models for policy impact assessment Brown and Brabyn should help to harmonize the EU agricultural policies and socioeconomic processes at different levels and in different sectors i.
Landscapes are spatially diverse, leading to the unequal distribution of landscape services over an area. An evaluation of the policy effects should therefore be spatially explicit as policies are likely to have a location-specific effect on the provision of landscape services Willemen et al. An ex-ante evaluation of the consequences of spatial planning and policy on the supply of landscape services can support effective decision-making Verburg et al.
The analysis of the historical landscape and the influential driving factors of landscape development may provide an essential basis for tackling current environmental questions in spatial planning Haase et al. The landscape should be understood as a dynamic and open system where biophysical, social, and economic factors interact to define the current structure. The knowledge of historical landscape development ought therefore to be a starting point for long-term landscape monitoring.
In most landscapes, large-scale patterns of geological, topographical, and morphological alteration are overlaid by smaller-scale variations in microclimate and disturbance patterns. Landscape processes are nested in a spatiotemporal hierarchy, from large-scale, slow processes like geological change to smaller-scale, rapid processes like plant competition and succession Gillson In order to evaluate the processes involved, suitable information about the landscape, the land-use structure, and the environment are required.
The spatiotemporal dynamics of traditional rural mountain landscapes reflect the land-use evolution over the centuries resulting from the long-standing interaction between people and the environment and recent changes due to the impact of population migrations and policies influencing land use Cullotta and Barbera A time series can be used to predict future general trends in the case of assumed constant political and economic frameworks. The generated scenarios can be considered a projection of future land-use changes or a description of the relationships between the driving forces of environmental changes and their evolution.
Regional and local investigations of landscape change Schneeberger et al. A multi-temporal analysis of land, with the support of GIS and historical documents, is very important for monitoring landscape diversity Yeh and Huang and for investigating changes in vegetation and landscape structure Leyk et al. Vegetation plays an important role in human life and economic activity. The economic role of vegetation is dependent on its ecological function, which is of particular importance like determines the top priority of taking them into account in the system of rational nature management.
In addition to vegetation, there are other elements that have a correlation with the landscape, such as buildings, which should be appropriately considered in data processing Picuno There is often a difficult relationship between rural buildings and the landscape Jeong et al. European landscape planning policy has particular building codes that protect local cultural identity and promote landscape quality Council of the European Union To understand the territorial and landscape changes that have occurred over the years, especially in Europe, it is important to recognize the limits of expert approaches and to integrate them with the use of various tools participatory GIS, semi-directed meetings, photo-elicitation, cognitive mapping, etc.
Geographical Information Systems GIS are excellent tools for landscape modeling, for knowing about changes of vegetation, and for conducting three-dimensional analyses. The morphological and vegetation variations of agroforestry in the landscape may be evaluated through the implementation of a digital terrain model DTM , over which the land cover picture is draped; further elements can be successively introduced in a rural landscape and may be included with the aim of understanding the changes occurring in the landscape.
Spatial information is, as a rule, visualized using photographic and thematic maps Gehrke et al. While photographic maps claim to be an accurate reproduction of the original settings, thematic maps portray their content in an abstract form, while the topology of spatial units is maintained Olbrich et al.
Here, GIS was used to integrate and manage different kinds of data and to create high-quality maps that incorporated many other layers of information. Also, orthophotos, maps, and models were integrated in a 3D viewer to improve interpretations. Partial results from each approach were coordinated and iterated to obtain the best fitting result Elez et al.
Strengthened by the knowledge of the importance of time as a dimension, and relying on the advances in the field of cartography and spatial analysis, several studies have examined the dynamics generated by the transformation of agricultural or forest exploitation contexts, as much for landscape spatial composition and organization as for ecological in support of biodiversity reasons.
However, specifically during the last two decades, three strong tendencies have led to the relative importance of these resources to local rural economies being questioned. Firstly, the increased mechanization and concentration of exploitation have resulted in a general decrease in the importance of the primary sector agriculture and forestry within rural communities, with their socioprofessional structure increasingly resembling that of more urban environments.
The new technologies cited are therefore here used to analyze land-use dynamics and topographic changes over almost two centuries from to The Municipality of Ruoti is characterized by an economy that is mainly based on agriculture, but some industrial activities are present. Cereal crops are widespread, as well as herds of sheep and goats, whose milk gives an excellent cheese. Wheat, fodder, and vegetables are grown, and there are olive groves, orchards, and vineyards, the latter producing the well-known Asprinio wine.
The industry is mostly aimed to the food sector, the main product being milk. Ruoti is a center of ancient origin, dating back to pre-Roman times, as demonstrated by a series of finds. The territory has been subjected over the centuries to domination by different groups, as evidenced by historical and architectural finds such as churches and monuments.
To understand the changes that have affected the study area during the last two centuries, four different time steps years were analyzed: , , , and The maps were firstly scanned and digitized within a Geographical Information System, then the land-use categories and elevations from each map were extracted, and the differences among the different time levels were evaluated Tucci and Giordano Through the digital processing of the maps that were found, it was possible to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape of the land in the study area and, thanks to a photomosaic procedure, achieve a virtual reconstruction of the land during these different time periods.
However, before using the information contained in old maps for historical studies, its quality had to be assessed and some aspects need to be considered: the topographic accuracy that denotes the quantity and quality of information about landscape objects; the chronometric accuracy, in other words, the dating of the map and the dating of the information contained in the map; and the planimetric completeness or geometric accuracy Jenny and Hurni The first historical maps were produced after border disputes by legal experts; an historical map of the Municipality of Ruoti was produced in to resolve border disputes and it remained the main document of the historical memory, representing the whole territory for investigations of the land.
This map shows the land that was studied and measured during the division of the former feudal domains and the subsequent controversy. It constitutes a complete cartographic support with thematic information about the land use at that time. The map reports on the town and the surrounding area and shows the main rivers in the area Fiumara di Ruoti and Fiumara di Avigliano ; in the north of the area, there are lands present that can be classified as nonirrigated arable land and irrigated land; in the central part of the territory, there is an alternation of olive groves and arable crops; while in the eastern part, a set of symbols describes the layout of the vineyards.
It also appears that a portion of land is classified as woodland. The legend located with the western part of the map shows the territorial extension of the categories of vegetation that are here represented.
This paper discusses the influences on food and farming of an increasingly urbanized world and a declining ratio of food producers to food consumers. Urbanization has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of workers in industrial and service enterprises. Globally, agriculture has met the demands from this rapidly growing urban population, including food that is more energy-, land-, water- and greenhouse gas emission-intensive. But hundreds of millions of urban dwellers suffer under-nutrition. So the key issues with regard to agriculture and urbanization are whether the growing and changing demands for agricultural products from growing urban populations can be sustained while at the same time underpinning agricultural prosperity and reducing rural and urban poverty.
Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero, Patience C. This paper examined the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria.
Metrics details. By , the population living in major cities, especially in developing countries, will have increased twofold. With the increasing majority of the population occurring in urban areas, it is crucial to focus on how technological innovation can help to deliver a sustainable future. A sustainable city strives to create a sustainable living environment through the use of technology. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to review the impact of technological innovation on building a more sustainable city.
New technologies could be adequately introduced for an improved analysis aimed to the sustainable management and planning of the rural land, as well as its environment and landscape. Nowadays, this analysis is easier and more complete through the use of powerful and reliable tools. Several changes can be considered to be as models of territorial development, useful for an appropriate planning of the human interventions in a rural area.
In this study session, you will learn about the trends in urbanisation and the causes of urban growth.
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PDF | We analyze the growth effects over space arising from the adoption of new Second, we define an urban to rural region agricultural technology knowledge ratio, innovation in agriculture that flows out of rural areas.Audomaro V. 20.03.2021 at 00:47
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