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The models wearing Size 0 clothing are just that: models. And even they are made-up, retouched, and photoshopped. These days, however, the impossible standards are set much closer to home, not by celebrities and models but by classmates and friends.

Social comparison, social media, and self-esteem.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Social Media and Self Esteem.

Yee Herng, Car Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. IntroductionSocial networking sites allows individuals to create profiles public or private that lets users create connections with other users Harbaugh, Social media depend on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify usergenerated content. They introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between businesses, organizations, communities, and individuals.

Selfesteem is also the evaluation of oneself in either a positive or a negative way. James viewed self-esteem as an evaluative process; he argued that self-esteem, at its simplest, could be measured as the ratio of a person's successes to his or her pretensions. Pretensions are viewed as goals, purposes, or aims, whereas successes constitute the perception of the attainment of those goals. As people attain more of their pretensions, the ratio grows larger and self-esteem becomes correspondingly stronger.

Pretensions also add a vulnerability component to selfesteem in that these are the areas where the individual is proposed to be most competent. If he or she comes up short in the perception of goal-attainment, or in comparison with others in the same pretension arena, self-esteem suffers. Rosenberg concluded that self-esteem is an attitude toward a specific object, the self. Feedback from others, particularly significant others, is a key element of self-esteem Rosenberg, Relational approach which means different thoughts, feelings, and behaviours when comparing to our ideal self with our real self.

Guindon explained self-esteem as "the attitudinal, evaluative component of the self; the affective judgements placed on the self-concept consisting of feelings of worth and acceptance which are developed and maintained as a consequence of awareness of competence and feedback from the external world. Rogers defined self-esteem as the extent to which people like, value, and accept themselves. He believed that the self develops from a combination of what is experienced and what is interjected, derived from values and affective preferences.

The individual conceptualize an ideal self, or the "person you would like to be"; and the true self, or the "person you really are. HSE people like themselves and feel good about who they are; those with LSE either hold ambivalent and mixed feelings toward themselves or dislike themselves.

One will refuse to take in criticism and always believe that he or she is always the right side. However, too low could lead to social anxiety then depression. They are more troubled by criticism. Additionally, they are more likely to magnify events as negative or perceive noncritical remarks as critical.

Those with low self-esteem are more likely than others to experience social anxiety. Low self-esteem experience substantially less happiness and more emotional distress, including depression and anxiety. Low self-esteem individuals tend to be pessimistic, cynical, and have negative attitudes toward institutions as well as toward people and groups. Besides, Baumeister et al. Those with high self-esteem are less likely to be depressed in response to stressful events whereas those with low self-esteem will be linked to depression which may be a risk factor for it and is associated with victimization.

Social Comparison TheoryLeon Festinger developed social comparison theory to explain the process which is many facets of the self can be evaluated only through comparisons with other people.

According to the theory, in the absence of a physical or objective standard correctness, we will seek other people as a means of evaluating ourselves. Others' opinions may be particularly influential for physical appearance, where the objective criteria are not altogether clear Felson, We are often motivated to explore our beliefs and abilities by comparing them with social reality Goethals, Joanne Wood has identified three reasons people use social comparison -evaluation, improvement, and enhancement.

Because the goals differ, each of these motivations involves a slightly different way of comparing. When one's goal is selfevaluation, people use social comparison to obtain an accurate impression of the self. When choose a "comparison other" for self-evaluation, people generally select someone whose performance represents a standard they may be able to match in the future. Later, if one's performance improves, the standard of comparison probably will rise as well.

Sometimes however, exploration involves unfamiliar facets or dimensions of the self. Wood suggests an individual will seek information about people who represent the extremes of the dimension. This is because knowing your own on a dimension is not very informative unless you also know whether that level is high, low or in the middle of the range of possible levels of the dimension.

As we learn more about our level on a particular dimension, we tend to choose comparison others who are similar to us. Gender, for example, is an important characteristic of the comparison other. Thus people will seek relevant others with whom to compare their performance, and similarity often serves as a cue for potential relevance. Festinger's unidirectional drive upward is most apparent when self-improvement is the goal of social comparison.

According to Wood , people who are especially achievement oriented or competitive are likely compare themselves to others who are better on a relevant dimension. Comparing ourselves to people who are better on the relevant dimension enables us to improve ourselves.

At the same time, the fact that the "better person" is similar to us in other ways is a source of inspiration. Finally Wood notes that self-enchantment attempts to convince ourselves that we are better off than we are, usually leads to downward comparisons. Social comparison is an active process. We are motivated by different goals that in turn affect the others with whom we choose to compare ourselves.

The purpose of this studyThe purpose of this study is to illustrate how social media will affect one's self esteem, particularly university first year students.

The relationship between social comparison and social media will also be studied. There are more than two billion active social media users worldwide, representing a global penetration rate of 28 percent. There are five million images are upload on Instagram every day, more than million tweets are sent out per day by users.

Besides that, the social networking site Facebook now has 1. This indirectly demonstrate that how important is social media to youngsters' daily lives nowadays. Low self-esteem will lead to depression in which depression is a risk factor to suicidal ideation. Based on World HealthOrganization , depression is considered one of the leading causes of disability in the world.

Researchers found people with low self-esteem deluge their social media friends with negative details about their lives, which makes them less likeable. Too much time on social media may take a toll on a young woman's sense of self-esteem, particularly how she feels about her body.

Thus, there is a relation between social media and self-esteem. Method ParticipantsThe study sample included thirty first year's undergraduates 15 males, 15 females from University of Malaya.

They are ranging in age from 19 to 23, and from numerous and diverse language, national and cultural backgrounds. MeasuresThe data used are from primary sources. We have and conducted a survey on the how social media affect their self-esteem.

The 30 questionnaires have been given out to 30 first years' undergraduates. We have set 10 questions in our questionnaires regarding the issue and the questions are being into 2 sections which are Section A and Section B. The questionnaires can be referred in Appendix I. Through the questionnaire, we were able to obtain all the primary sources that we need in creating this report analysis.

Data Analysis and DiscussionsAs discussed in the Methodology, the study is carried out by using quantitative approach. Questionnaire is given out to 30 first year undergraduates which consist of 15 male and female respectively. Section AQuestion 1: Social media sites you use. Based on the analysis above, it is found that Facebook has the most users for both female and male, which are 15 and 13 respectively.

For female, it is followed by Twitter and Instagram both are 10 users respectively , Skype which contributes 7 users and the least, Snapchat for 5 users. On the other hand, the second rank for social media usage in male is Instagram 9 users , followed by Twitter 7 users and Skype 1 user. Data shows that Snapchat is not being used by male undergraduates. Based on the data above, we can conclude that Facebook is considered one of the most famous social media which sets as a platform to share one's ideas and lives besides communicating and interacting with friends in the virtual world.

It is high possibly that male undergraduates do not use Snapchat due to its main purpose as one of the social medias that only records daily lifestyle. Hence, it does not get male undergraduates' attractions. Question 2: What is the frequency of visiting the social media sites on a daily basis?

Based on the data above, it demonstrates that most of the female undergraduates visit social media sites more than 5 hours per day while male undergraduates visit social media sites between one and three hours per day. For female undergraduates, 4 interviewees visit them between hours and hours per day respectively. Only one female states that she uses social media sites for hour per day.

Only two male state that they use them for hour per day. This question can be linked to the hypothesis of this study, which is social media will affect one's self-esteem. It also demonstrates how important is the social media contribute to one's social life and self-esteem. It eventually affects one's self-esteem regardless gender in daily life if one is being too addictive on social media sites.

Data above shows that 9 female undergraduates used to express their feelings and thoughts via social media sites while 6 do not express it through this measure. In this data collected, it is undeniable that most of the female and male undergraduates do express their feelings and thoughts via social media sites. However, it seems to be a surprise that the frequency of male undergraduates who express their feelings and thoughts via social media sites is higher than the female undergraduates.

In this scenario, we conclude that male undergraduates contribute to the higher frequency compared to female due to their characteristics as one who wishes to seek for information and response from others.

Self-Esteem, Social Comparison, and Facebook Use

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Social Media and Self Esteem.pdf

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Self-esteem is one of the most common constructs studied regarding adolescence.

Social media has been used to communicate with people worldwide, but recently, with technology advancement it becomes a way of expressing and reflecting personal life online. It provides incredible tools to create personal accounts that can be easily viewed by others. This way may lead them to be exposed to inappropriate interference and judgment from others. Undoubtedly, that may have a serious impacts on their feelings and how they evaluate themselves.

Social comparison, social media, and self-esteem. Erin A. Vogel 9 Estimated H-index: 9.

27th IBIMA Conference

Self-esteem is an individual's subjective evaluation of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself for example, "I am unloved", "I am worthy" as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Self-esteem is an attractive psychological construct because it predicts certain outcomes, such as academic achievement, [3] [4] happiness, [5] satisfaction in marriage and relationships, [6] and criminal behavior.

Facebook use is very popular among young people, but many open issues remain regarding the individual traits that are antecedents of different behaviours enacted online. This study aimed to investigate whether the relationship between self-esteem and the amount of time on Facebook could be mediated by a tendency towards social comparison. Moreover, three different modalities of Facebook use were distinguished, i.

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A viable hypothesis for these mixed findings is that the effect of SMU differs from adolescent to adolescent. Our results suggest that person-specific effects can no longer be ignored in future media effects theories and research. An important developmental task that adolescents need to accomplish is to acquire self-esteem, the positive and relative stable evaluation of the self. Peer interaction and feedback on the self, both bedrock features of social media, are important predictors of adolescent self-esteem Harter, The ages of the adolescents included in these studies ranged from eight to 19 years. Fifteen of these studies are cross-sectional correlational e.

 Как мило, - вздохнула. - Итак, твой диагноз? - потребовал. Сьюзан на минуту задумалась.

Расскажите мне, что произошло. Старик вздохнул. - Очень печальная история. Одному несчастному азиату стало плохо.

 А вдруг Танкадо ошибся? - вмешался Фонтейн.


Lderandiaco 28.03.2021 at 07:49

Further this research proves there that there is a strong relationship between social media and self-esteem. Increase in social media usage.

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Using an experimental approach, Study 2 examined the impact of temporary exposure to social media profiles on state self-esteem and relative.