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Parts Of Digestive System And Their Functions Pdf

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The gastrointestinal tract , GI tract , GIT , digestive tract , digestion tract , alimentary canal is the tract from the mouth to the anus which includes all the organs of the digestive system in humans and other animals. Food taken in through the mouth is digested to extract nutrients and absorb energy, and the waste expelled as feces. The mouth , esophagus , stomach and intestines are all part of the gastrointestinal tract.

Gastrointestinal tract

The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract GI tract. The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines.

In addition to the alimentary canal, there are several important accessory organs that help your body to digest food but do not have food pass through them.

Accessory organs of the digestive system include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Food begins its journey through the digestive system in the mouth, also known as the oral cavity. Inside the mouth are many accessory organs that aid in the digestion of food—the tongue, teeth, and salivary glands.

Teeth chop food into small pieces, which are moistened by saliva before the tongue and other muscles push the food into the pharynx. The pharynx, or throat, is a funnel-shaped tube connected to the posterior end of the mouth.

The pharynx is responsible for the passing of masses of chewed food from the mouth to the esophagus. The pharynx also plays an important role in the respiratory system, as air from the nasal cavity passes through the pharynx on its way to the larynx and eventually the lungs.

Because the pharynx serves two different functions, it contains a flap of tissue known as the epiglottis that acts as a switch to route food to the esophagus and air to the larynx.

It carries swallowed masses of chewed food along its length. At the inferior end of the esophagus is a muscular ring called the lower esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter. The function of this sphincter is to close of the end of the esophagus and trap food in the stomach. The stomach is a muscular sac that is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, just inferior to the diaphragm.

In an average person, the stomach is about the size of their two fists placed next to each other. This major organ acts as a storage tank for food so that the body has time to digest large meals properly. The stomach also contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes that continue the digestion of food that began in the mouth.

It is located just inferior to the stomach and takes up most of the space in the abdominal cavity. The entire small intestine is coiled like a hose and the inside surface is full of many ridges and folds. These folds are used to maximize the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. The liver is a roughly triangular accessory organ of the digestive system located to the right of the stomach, just inferior to the diaphragm and superior to the small intestine.

The liver weighs about 3 pounds and is the second largest organ in the body. The liver has many different functions in the body, but the main function of the liver in digestion is the production of bile and its secretion into the small intestine.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just posterior to the liver. The gallbladder is used to store and recycle excess bile from the small intestine so that it can be reused for the digestion of subsequent meals. The pancreas is a large gland located just inferior and posterior to the stomach. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine to complete the chemical digestion of foods.

The large intestine is a long, thick tube about 2. It is located just inferior to the stomach and wraps around the superior and lateral border of the small intestine.

The large intestine absorbs water and contains many symbiotic bacteria that aid in the breaking down of wastes to extract some small amounts of nutrients.

Feces in the large intestine exit the body through the anal canal. The digestive system is responsible for taking whole foods and turning them into energy and nutrients to allow the body to function, grow, and repair itself. The six primary processes of the digestive system include:. The first function of the digestive system is ingestion, or the intake of food.

The mouth is responsible for this function, as it is the orifice through which all food enters the body. The mouth and stomach are also responsible for the storage of food as it is waiting to be digested.

This storage capacity allows the body to eat only a few times each day and to ingest more food than it can process at one time. In the course of a day, the digestive system secretes around 7 liters of fluids. These fluids include saliva, mucus, hydrochloric acid, enzymes, and bile. Saliva moistens dry food and contains salivary amylase, a digestive enzyme that begins the digestion of carbohydrates.

Mucus serves as a protective barrier and lubricant inside of the GI tract. Hydrochloric acid helps to digest food chemically and protects the body by killing bacteria present in our food. Enzymes are like tiny biochemical machines that disassemble large macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids into their smaller components.

Finally, bile is used to emulsify large masses of lipids into tiny globules for easy digestion. Digestion is the process of turning large pieces of food into its component chemicals.

Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces. This mode of digestion begins with the chewing of food by the teeth and is continued through the muscular mixing of food by the stomach and intestines. Bile produced by the liver is also used to mechanically break fats into smaller globules. While food is being mechanically digested it is also being chemically digested as larger and more complex molecules are being broken down into smaller molecules that are easier to absorb.

Chemical digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase in saliva splitting complex carbohydrates into simple carbohydrates.

The enzymes and acid in the stomach continue chemical digestion, but the bulk of chemical digestion takes place in the small intestine thanks to the action of the pancreas. The pancreas secretes an incredibly strong digestive cocktail known as pancreatic juice, which is capable of digesting lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. By the time food has left the duodenum , it has been reduced to its chemical building blocks—fatty acids, amino acids, monosaccharides, and nucleotides.

Once food has been reduced to its building blocks, it is ready for the body to absorb. Absorption begins in the stomach with simple molecules like water and alcohol being absorbed directly into the bloodstream. Most absorption takes place in the walls of the small intestine, which are densely folded to maximize the surface area in contact with digested food. Small blood and lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall pick up the molecules and carry them to the rest of the body.

The large intestine is also involved in the absorption of water and vitamins B and K before feces leave the body. The final function of the digestive system is the excretion of waste in a process known as defecation.

Defecation removes indigestible substances from the body so that they do not accumulate inside the gut. The timing of defecation is controlled voluntarily by the conscious part of the brain, but must be accomplished on a regular basis to prevent a backup of indigestible materials. Many diseases and health conditions - such as ulcers, GERD, IBD and celiac disease, just to name a few - lead to dysfunction in our digestive system.

Learn about them by visiting our section on digestive diseases and conditions. Also, now you can test for your genetic risk of acquiring celiac disease - learn more about DNA health testing.

By: Tim Taylor. Last Updated: Oct 12, Now please check your email to confirm your subscription. There was an error submitting your subscription. Please try again. Email Address. Mixing and Movement. All Rights Reserved. Innerbody Research does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

You must consult your own medical professional.

Human digestive system

Human digestive system , system used in the human body for the process of digestion. The human digestive system consists primarily of the digestive tract , or the series of structures and organs through which food and liquids pass during their processing into forms absorbable into the bloodstream. The system also consists of the structures through which wastes pass in the process of elimination and other organs that contribute juices necessary for the digestive process. The digestive tract begins at the lips and ends at the anus. It consists of the mouth , or oral cavity, with its teeth , for grinding the food, and its tongue , which serves to knead food and mix it with saliva ; the throat, or pharynx ; the esophagus ; the stomach ; the small intestine , consisting of the duodenum , the jejunum, and the ileum ; and the large intestine , consisting of the cecum , a closed-end sac connecting with the ileum, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon , which terminates in the rectum.

Your digestive system is uniquely constructed to do its job of turning your food into the nutrients and energy you need to survive. The main organs that make up the digestive system in order of their function are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. Helping them along the way are the pancreas, gall bladder and liver. The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract. In fact, digestion starts before you even take a bite. Your salivary glands get active as you see and smell that pasta dish or warm bread. After you start eating, you chew your food into pieces that are more easily digested.


tract (mainly in the oral cavity and stomach) physically break Organs of the digestive system are divided into 2 main Other functions of the liver include.


The digestive and excretory systems review

This article — the fifth in a six-part series describes the physiology and functions of the large intestine, the last portion of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as common conditions of both the small and large intestine. In the large intestine — the final section of the gastrointestinal tract — absorption of water and electrolytes takes place and colonic bacteria complete the process of chemical digestion. The large intestine is also where faeces are formed from the remains of food and fluid combined with by-products of the body. Intestinal content is pushed back and forth by haustral contractions and antiperistaltic contractions, until faeces are finally pushed towards the anal canal by mass movements.

Gastrointestinal tract

The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract GI tract. The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. In addition to the alimentary canal, there are several important accessory organs that help your body to digest food but do not have food pass through them. Accessory organs of the digestive system include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

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Trasininov 29.03.2021 at 16:49

Human digestive system , system used in the human body for the process of digestion.

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