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Pollution Types Causes Effects And Control Pdf

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When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind. While littering and gasoline-fueled cars are a major contributor to pollution, there are many other influences that are important to be aware of. Essentially, pollution occurs when substances are introduced to the environment that have harmful effects, damaging the quality of land, water, and air. The cause is the accumulation of solid and liquid waste materials that contaminate groundwater and soil.

Study Session 7 Pollution: Types, Sources and Characteristics

Pollution , also called environmental pollution , the addition of any substance solid , liquid , or gas or any form of energy such as heat , sound, or radioactivity to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. The major kinds of pollution, usually classified by environment, are air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution.

Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution , light pollution , and plastic pollution. Pollution of all kinds can have negative effects on the environment and wildlife and often impacts human health and well-being.

Pollution occurs when an amount of any substance or any form of energy is put into the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed or safely stored. The term pollution can refer to both artificial and natural materials that are created, consumed, and discarded in an unsustainable manner. Air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution are three major forms of environmental pollution.

Pollution can also refer to excessive human activity, such as light and noise pollution , or to specific pollutants such as plastic or radioactive material. Air pollution is the main cause of climate change.

Human activities such as burning fossil fuels and mass deforestation lead to the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere , which traps heat inside the atmosphere through a process called the greenhouse effect. This impacts climate patterns and sea levels around the world. Pollution can be reduced through processes such as recycling and the proper treatment of water and toxic waste. The reduction of corporate fossil fuel extraction is another way to counter air pollution.

According to the Carbon Majors Report prepared by the Carbon Disclosure Project, more than 70 percent of greenhouse gas emissions comes from only companies. Air pollution is estimated to kill 7 million people every year. Radioactive and toxic waste in water can cause many diseases, including fatal conditions such as typhoid fever and cholera.

Consumption of contaminated water causes approximately , deaths every year. Although environmental pollution can be caused by natural events such as forest fires and active volcanoes , use of the word pollution generally implies that the contaminants have an anthropogenic source—that is, a source created by human activities. Pollution has accompanied humankind ever since groups of people first congregated and remained for a long time in any one place. Indeed, ancient human settlements are frequently recognized by their wastes— shell mounds and rubble heaps, for instance.

Pollution was not a serious problem as long as there was enough space available for each individual or group. However, with the establishment of permanent settlements by great numbers of people, pollution became a problem, and it has remained one ever since. Cities of ancient times were often noxious places, fouled by human wastes and debris. Beginning about ce , the use of coal for fuel caused considerable air pollution, and the conversion of coal to coke for iron smelting beginning in the 17th century exacerbated the problem.

In Europe, from the Middle Ages well into the early modern era, unsanitary urban conditions favoured the outbreak of population-decimating epidemics of disease, from plague to cholera and typhoid fever.

Through the 19th century, water and air pollution and the accumulation of solid wastes were largely problems of congested urban areas.

But, with the rapid spread of industrialization and the growth of the human population to unprecedented levels, pollution became a universal problem. By the middle of the 20th century, an awareness of the need to protect air, water, and land environments from pollution had developed among the general public.

In response, major pieces of environmental legislation, such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act ; United States , were passed in many countries to control and mitigate environmental pollution. The presence of environmental pollution raises the issue of pollution control. Great efforts are made to limit the release of harmful substances into the environment through air pollution control , wastewater treatment , solid-waste management , hazardous-waste management , and recycling.

Unfortunately, attempts at pollution control are often surpassed by the scale of the problem, especially in less-developed countries. Noxious levels of air pollution are common in many large cities, where particulates and gases from transportation, heating, and manufacturing accumulate and linger. The problem of plastic pollution on land and in the oceans has only grown as the use of single-use plastics has burgeoned worldwide.

In addition, greenhouse gas emissions, such as methane and carbon dioxide , continue to drive global warming and pose a great threat to biodiversity and public health. Pollution Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Home Science Environment Pollution environment. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.

Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Jerry A. Alternative Title: environmental pollution.

Top Questions. Learn more about the major kinds of pollution in this infographic explainer. The major kinds of pollution, usually classified by environment, are air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution, thermal pollution, light pollution, and plastic pollution. Learn about light pollution, including its effects on nature.

Workers steaming blast rocks covered in crude oil leaking from the Exxon Valdez , an oil tanker that ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, U.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Research has discovered how houseplants could potentially remove VOCs and other indoor air pollutants.

Upcycling plastic bags into battery parts. Plastic pollution, including many single-use plastics like bags and food packaging, in the ocean. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Pollution is a special case of habitat destruction; it is chemical destruction rather than the more obvious physical destruction.

Pollution occurs in all habitats—land, sea, and fresh water—and in the atmosphere. Global warming, which is discussed separately below see Global change , is one consequence…. There is no plant community anywhere on Earth that has not felt the direct influence of the expansion of the human enterprise.

The influence has had the form of direct intrusion through hunting and gathering, cultivation, or extensive harvest of trees or other plants…. The disastrous fog and attendant high levels of sulfur dioxide and particulate pollution and probably also sulfuric acid that occurred in London in the second week of December led to the deaths of more than 4, people during that week and the subsequent three….

History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.

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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In , pollution killed 9 million people worldwide. Major forms of pollution include air pollution , light pollution , litter , noise pollution , plastic pollution , soil contamination , radioactive contamination , thermal pollution , visual pollution , and water pollution. Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations.

Environment Pollution: Types, Causes, Effects (PDF Download)

You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment. Pollution was defined as the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms. Many human activities pollute our environment, adversely affecting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which we grow food. In this and the next study session we will look more closely at pollution.

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Water Pollution: Everything You Need to Know

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Pollution , we probably hear of this term every other day at school, college, and offices. We also come across the term in newspapers, online journals, and media in general. So what is it and why is it deemed harmful? Pollution occurs when pollutants contaminate the natural surroundings; bringing about changes that affect our normal lifestyles adversely. Pollutants are the key elements or components of pollution which are generally waste materials of different forms. Pollution disturbs our ecosystem and the balance in the environment. With modernization and development in our lives, pollution has reached its peak; giving rise to global warming and human illness.


TYPES OF POLLUTION Blowing dust. Bacteria or. Viruses. Fire. Not in Human control. Accentuated by Radioactive dust causes genetic effects on the next.


TYPES , CAUSES , IMPACTS AND MANAGEMENT FOR THE HEALTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC WELL-BEING

Learning Outcomes for Study Session 7

Pollution , also called environmental pollution , the addition of any substance solid , liquid , or gas or any form of energy such as heat , sound, or radioactivity to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. The major kinds of pollution, usually classified by environment, are air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution , light pollution , and plastic pollution. Pollution of all kinds can have negative effects on the environment and wildlife and often impacts human health and well-being. Pollution occurs when an amount of any substance or any form of energy is put into the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed or safely stored. The term pollution can refer to both artificial and natural materials that are created, consumed, and discarded in an unsustainable manner. Air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution are three major forms of environmental pollution.

Jerry Spiegel and Lucien Y. Over the course of the twentieth century, growing recognition of the environmental and public health impacts associated with anthropogenic activities discussed in the chapter Environmental Health Hazards has prompted the development and application of methods and technologies to reduce the effects of pollution. In this context, governments have adopted regulatory and other policy measures discussed in the chapter Environmental Policy to minimize negative effects and ensure that environmental quality standards are achieved. The objective of this chapter is to provide an orientation to the methods that are applied to control and prevent environmental pollution. The basic principles followed for eliminating negative impacts on the quality of water, air or land will be introduced; the shifting emphasis from control to prevention will be considered; and the limitations of building solutions for individual environmental media will be examined.

На ней стояли пустая бутылка из-под шампанского, два бокала… и лежала записка. Протерев глаза, она натянула на плечи одеяло и прочла: Моя драгоценная Сьюзан. Я люблю .

Это почти четыреста долларов. Итальянец засмеялся. Он явно не верил своим ушам. - Dov'ela plata.

Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention

5 Comments

Teddy88 11.03.2021 at 17:35

Theory of Environmental Pollution is one among them.

Heloise T. 14.03.2021 at 07:28

This chapter examines the types of pollution—air, water, and soil; the causes and effects of The knowledge of the causes and consequences of environmental pollution is paramount, but and use of certain pest control chemicals that are nonbiodegradable. Article Download PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar.

Christian Z. 14.03.2021 at 09:07

The pollutants are very harmful to the environment and living organisms. They have two types of impact;. direct effect- it can cause harm to the.

Tibor R. 16.03.2021 at 09:01

There are various types of pollution which include; soil pollution, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, radioactive contamination, light.

Jezabel G. 16.03.2021 at 09:51

Control measures: Policy measures; Modification of industrial process and selection of suitable fuels and its utilization. Collection of pollutants.

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