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Electric Potential And Electric Potential Energy Pdf

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The electric potential also called the electric field potential , potential drop, the electrostatic potential is the amount of work energy needed to move a unit of electric charge a Coulomb from a reference point to the specific point in an electric field with negligible acceleration of the test charge to avoid producing kinetic energy or radiation by test charge. Typically, the reference point is the Earth or a point at infinity , although any point can be used. More precisely it is the energy per unit charge for a small test charge that does not disturb significantly the field and the charge distribution producing the field under consideration.

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Recall that earlier we defined electric field to be a quantity independent of the test charge in a given system, which would nonetheless allow us to calculate the force that would result on an arbitrary test charge. The default assumption in the absence of other information is that the test charge is positive. We briefly defined a field for gravity, but gravity is always attractive, whereas the electric force can be either attractive or repulsive. Therefore, although potential energy is perfectly adequate in a gravitational system, it is convenient to define a quantity that allows us to calculate the work on a charge independent of the magnitude of the charge. To have a physical quantity that is independent of test charge, we define electric potential V or simply potential, since electric is understood to be the potential energy per unit charge:.

Electric potential

Electric potential , the amount of work needed to move a unit charge from a reference point to a specific point against an electric field. Typically, the reference point is Earth , although any point beyond the influence of the electric field charge can be used. The diagram shows the forces acting on a positive charge q located between two plates, A and B, of an electric field E.

The potential energy for a positive charge increases when it moves against an electric field and decreases when it moves with the electric field; the opposite is true for a negative charge. Unless the unit charge crosses a changing magnetic field , its potential at any given point does not depend on the path taken.

Although the concept of electric potential is useful in understanding electrical phenomena, only differences in potential energy are measurable. If an electric field is defined as the force per unit charge, then by analogy an electric potential can be thought of as the potential energy per unit charge. Therefore, the work done in moving a unit charge from one point to another e.

In the International System of Units SI , electric potential is expressed in units of joules per coulomb i. Electric potential Article Media Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login.

External Websites. Hyperphysics - Electric Potential Energy. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.

Alternative Title: electrostatic potential. Read More on This Topic. The electric potential is another useful field. It provides an alternative to the electric field in electrostatics problems. The potential Forces acting on a charge q between two plates, A and B, which have an electric field E between them. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:.

The potential is easier to use, however, because it is a single number, a scalar, instead of a vector. The difference in potential between two places measures the…. The electric potential is just such a scalar function. Electric potential is related to the work done by an external force when it transports a charge slowly from one position to another in an environment containing other charges at rest. The difference between…. Potentiometry measures electric potential or voltage while maintaining a constant normally nearly zero electric current between the electrodes.

Amperometry monitors electric current amperes while keeping the potential constant. Conductometry measures conductance the ability of a solution to carry an electric current while a constant alternating-current AC potential….

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Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential , the amount of work needed to move a unit charge from a reference point to a specific point against an electric field. Typically, the reference point is Earth , although any point beyond the influence of the electric field charge can be used. The diagram shows the forces acting on a positive charge q located between two plates, A and B, of an electric field E. The potential energy for a positive charge increases when it moves against an electric field and decreases when it moves with the electric field; the opposite is true for a negative charge. Unless the unit charge crosses a changing magnetic field , its potential at any given point does not depend on the path taken. Although the concept of electric potential is useful in understanding electrical phenomena, only differences in potential energy are measurable.

If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. Donate Login Sign up Search for courses, skills, and videos. Science Physics library Electric charge, field, and potential Electric potential energy, electric potential, and voltage. Electric potential energy. Electric potential energy part involves calculus.

Electric potential

Recall that earlier we defined electric field to be a quantity independent of the test charge in a given system, which would nonetheless allow us to calculate the force that would result on an arbitrary test charge. The default assumption in the absence of other information is that the test charge is positive. We briefly defined a field for gravity, but gravity is always attractive, whereas the electric force can be either attractive or repulsive. Therefore, although potential energy is perfectly adequate in a gravitational system, it is convenient to define a quantity that allows us to calculate the work on a charge independent of the magnitude of the charge. Keep in mind that whenever a voltage is quoted, it is understood to be the potential difference between two points.

Physics for Computer Science Students pp Cite as. We have seen in the preceding chapter how the presence of an electric charge has an effect on another electric charge. This raises the question: What if there is only one electric charge present?

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Продвигаясь по служебной лестнице, Тревор Стратмор прославился умением сжато и одновременно глубоко анализировать сложнейшие ситуации. Он обладал почти сверхъестественной способностью преодолевать моральные затруднения, с которыми нередко бывают связаны сложные решения агентства, и действовать без угрызений совести в интересах всеобщего блага. Ни у кого не вызывало сомнений, что Стратмор любит свою страну. Он был известен среди сотрудников, он пользовался репутацией патриота и идеалиста… честного человека в мире, сотканном из лжи. За годы, прошедшие после появления в АНБ Сьюзан, Стратмор поднялся с поста начальника Отдела развития криптографии до второй по важности позиции во всем агентстве. Теперь только один человек в АНБ был по должности выше коммандера Стратмора - директор Лиланд Фонтейн, мифический правитель Дворца головоломок, которого никто никогда не видел, лишь изредка слышал, но перед которым все дрожали от страха.

По-видимому, Стратмор проверял свой план с помощью программы Мозговой штурм. Если кто-то имеет возможность читать его электронную почту, то и остальная информация на его компьютере становится доступной… - Переделка Цифровой крепости - чистое безумие! - кричал Хейл.  - Ты отлично понимаешь, что это за собой влечет - полный доступ АНБ к любой информации.  - Сирена заглушала его слова, но Хейл старался ее перекричать.  - Ты считаешь, что мы готовы взять на себя такую ответственность. Ты считаешь, что кто-нибудь готов. Это же крайне недальновидно.

Миллиард долларов. Соблазнительный образ Кармен тут же улетучился. Код ценой в один миллиард долларов. Некоторое время он сидел словно парализованный, затем в панике выбежал в коридор. - Мидж. Скорее. ГЛАВА 44 Фил Чатрукьян, киля от злости, вернулся в лабораторию систем безопасности.

 Багаж, сеньор. Я могу вам помочь. - Спасибо, не .

 - Идея неплохая, но на каждое послание Танкадо, увы, поступает ответ. Танкадо пишет, его партнер отвечает. - Убедительно.

 - Что показалось тебе странным. Сьюзан восхитилась спектаклем, который на ее глазах разыгрывал коммандер. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает с чем-то очень сложным, фильтры никогда ни с чем подобным не сталкивались. Боюсь, что в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ завелся какой-то неизвестный вирус.

ГЛАВА 16 - Кольцо? - не веря своим ушам, переспросила Сьюзан.  - С руки Танкадо исчезло кольцо. - Да. К счастью, Дэвид это обнаружил. Он проявил редкую наблюдательность.

Делая маленькие глотки, она смотрела в окно. Лунный свет проникал в комнату сквозь приоткрытые жалюзи, отражаясь от столешницы с затейливой поверхностью. Мидж всегда думала, что директорский кабинет следовало оборудовать здесь, а не в передней части здания, где он находился.

Он поднял глаза на видеомониторы, и у него закружилась голова. Одна и та же картинка смотрела на него со всех двенадцати мониторов наподобие какого-то извращенного балета. Вцепившись руками в спинку стула, Бринкерхофф в ужасе смотрел на экраны. - Чед? - услышал он голос у себя за спиной.

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