File Name: plumbing materials and fittings .zip
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A fitting or adapter is used in pipe systems to connect straight sections of pipe or tube , adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes such as regulating or measuring fluid flow.
Fittings especially uncommon types require money, time, materials, and tools to install, and are an important part of piping and plumbing systems. Standard codes are followed when designing or manufacturing a piping system. Organizations which promulgate piping standards include:.
The B These codes specify requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection and testing of piping. The codes are applicable to piping for all fluids, including raw, intermediate and finished chemicals; petroleum products ; gas, steam, air and water; fluidized solids; refrigerants, and cryogenic fluids.
The material with which a pipe is manufactured is often the basis for choosing a pipe. Materials used for manufacturing pipes include:. Any material permitted by the plumbing, health, or building code as applicable may be used, but it must be compatible with the other materials in the system, the fluids being transported, and the temperature and pressure inside and outside the system. Brass or bronze fittings are common in copper piping and plumbing systems.
Fire resistance , earthquake resistance, mechanical ruggedness, theft resistance, and other factors also influence the choice of pipe and fitting materials. Gaskets are mechanical seals, usually ring-shaped , which seal flange joints. Non-metallic gaskets are used with flat- or raised-face flanges. Spiral-wound gaskets are used with raised-face flanges, and ring-joint gaskets are used with ring-type joint RTJ flanges. Stress develops between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when the gasket is bolted to a flange, leading to plastic deformation of the gasket.
Piping or tubing is usually inserted into fittings to make connections. Connectors are assigned a gender, abbreviated M or F. This section discusses fittings primarily used in pressurized piping systems, though there is some overlap with fittings for low-pressure or non-pressurized systems. Specialized fittings for the latter setups are discussed in the next major subsection. In plumbing, an adapter is generally a fitting which interfaces two dissimilar parts.
The term commonly refers to:. The ends may be machined for butt welding , threaded usually female , or socketed. When the ends differ in size, it is known as a reducing or reducer elbow.
Other available materials include silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, and nylon. It is primarily used to connect hoses to valves, water pumps and deck drains. Elbows are also categorized by length. The radius of curvature of a long-radius LR elbow is 1. Short elbows, widely available, are typically used in pressurized systems, and in physically tight locations. Long elbows are used in low-pressure gravity-fed systems and other applications where low turbulence and minimum deposition of entrained solids are of concern.
A coupling connects two pipes. If their sizes differ, the fitting is known as a reducing coupling , reducer , or an adapter. There are two types of couplings: "regular" and "slip". A regular coupling has a small ridge or stop internally, to prevent over-insertion of a pipe, and thus under-insertion of the other pipe segment which would result in an unreliable connection. A slip coupling sometimes also called a repair coupling is deliberately made without this internal stop, to allow it to be slipped into place in tight locations, such as the repair of a pipe that has a small leak due to corrosion or freeze bursting, or which had to be cut temporarily for some reason.
Since the alignment stop is missing, it is up to the installer to carefully measure the final location of the slip coupling to ensure that it is located correctly. A union also connects two pipes, but is quite different than a coupling, as it allows future disconnection of the pipes for maintenance.
In contrast to a coupling requiring solvent welding , soldering , or rotation for threaded couplings , a union allows easy connection and disconnection, multiple times if needed.
It consists of three parts: a nut, a female end and a male end. When the female and male ends are joined, the nut seals the joint by pressing the two ends tightly together. Unions are a type of very compact flange connector. Dielectric unions , with dielectric insulation, separate dissimilar metals such as copper and galvanized steel to prevent galvanic corrosion.
When two dissimilar metals are in contact with an electrically conductive solution ordinary tap water is conductive , they form an electrochemical couple which generates a voltage by electrolysis. When the metals are in direct contact with each other, the electric current from one to the other also moves metallic ions from one to the other; this dissolves one metal, depositing it on the other.
A dielectric union breaks the electrical path with a plastic liner between its halves, limiting galvanic corrosion. Rotary unions allow mechanical rotation of one of the joined parts, while resisting leakage. A nipple is a short stub of pipe, usually male-threaded steel , brass, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride CPVC , or copper occasionally unthreaded copper , which connects two other fittings.
A nipple with continuous uninterrupted threading is known as a close nipple. Nipples are commonly used with plumbing and hoses. A reducer reduces the pipe size from a larger to a smaller bore inner diameter. Alternatively, reducer may refer to any fitting which causes a change in pipe diameter. The length of the reduction is usually equal to the average of the larger and smaller pipe diameters. Although reducers are usually concentric , eccentric reducers are used as needed to maintain the top- or bottom-of-pipe level.
A reducer can also be used either as a nozzle or diffuser, depending on the mach number of the flow. A double-tapped bushing is a fitting which serves as a reducer. It is a sleeve similar to a close nipple , but is threaded on both its inner and outer circumferences. Like a reducer, a double-tapped bushing has two threads of different sizes. A double-tapped bushing is more compact than a reducer, but not as flexible.
While a double-tapped bushing has a smaller female thread concentric to a larger male thread and thus couples a smaller male end to a larger female , a reducer may have large and small ends of either gender.
If both ends are the same gender, it is a gender-changing reducer. There are similar fittings for both sweat and solvent joinery. Since they are not "tapped" threaded , they are simply called reducing bushings. A tee, the most common pipe fitting, is used to combine or divide fluid flow. It is available with female thread sockets, solvent-weld sockets or opposed solvent-weld sockets and a female-threaded side outlet.
Tees can connect pipes of different diameters or change the direction of a pipe run, or both. Available in a variety of materials, sizes and finishes, they may also be used to transport two-fluid mixtures.
This specialized type of tee fitting is used primarily in pressurized hydronic heating systems, to divert a portion of the flow from the main line into a side branch connected to a radiator or heat exchanger. The diverter tee is designed to allow flow to continue in the main line, even when the side branch is shut down and not calling for heat. Diverter tees have directional markings which must be heeded; a tee installed backwards will function very poorly.
Crosses, also known as four-way fittings or cross branch lines , have one inlet and three outlets or vice versa , and often have solvent-welded socket or female-threaded ends. Cross fittings may stress pipes as temperatures change, because they are at the center of four connection points. A tee is steadier than a cross; it behaves like a three-legged stool, and a cross behaves like a four-legged stool. Geometrically , any three non- collinear points can self-consistently define a plane; three legs are inherently stable, whereas four points overdetermine a plane, and can be inconsistent, resulting in physical stress on a fitting.
Crosses are common in fire sprinkler systems where stress caused by thermal expansion is not generally an issue , [ why? One cross fitting is more expensive than two tees. Caps, usually liquid- or gas-tight, cover the otherwise open end of a pipe. A cap attaches to the exterior of a pipe, and may have a solvent-weld socket end or a female-threaded interior. The exterior of an industrial cap may be round, square, rectangular, U- or I-shaped, or may have a handgrip. If a solvent-weld cap is used to provide for a future connection point, several inches of pipe must be left before the cap; when the cap is cut off for the future connection, enough pipe must remain to allow a new fitting to be glued onto it.
A barb or hose barb , which connects flexible hose or tubing to pipes, typically has a male-threaded end which mates with female threads. The other end of the fitting has a single- or multi-barbed tube—a long tapered cone with ridges, which is inserted into a flexible hose. An adjustable worm drive screw clamp or other type of clamp is often added, to keep the hose from slipping off the barbed tube.
Barb fittings can be made of brass for hot-water applications, and plastic may be used for cold water; brass is considered more durable for heavy-duty use. The barb fitting may be elbow-shaped or straight. Valves stop or regulate the flow of liquids or gases. They are categorized by application, such as isolation, throttling, and non-return. Isolation valves are used to temporarily disconnect part of a piping system, to allow maintenance or repair, for example.
Isolation valves are typically left in either a fully open or fully closed position. A given isolation valve may be in place for many years without being operated, but must be designed to be readily operable whenever needed, including emergency use.
Throttling valves are used to control the amount or pressure of a fluid allowed to pass through, and are designed to withstand the stress and wear caused by this type of operation. Because they may wear out in this usage, they are often installed alongside isolation valves which can temporarily disconnect a failing throttling valve from the rest of the system, so it can be refurbished or replaced.
Non-return or check valves allow free flow of a fluid in one direction, but prevent its flow in a reverse direction. They are often seen in drainage or sewage systems, but may also be used in pressurized systems. Because they operate at low pressure and rely on gravity to move fluids and entrained solids , drain-waste-vent systems use fittings whose interior surfaces are as smooth as possible. The fittings may be "belled" expanded slightly in diameter or otherwise shaped to accommodate the insertion of pipe or tubing without forming a sharp interior ridge that might catch debris or accumulate material, and cause a clog or blockage.
This internal smoothness also makes it easier to "snake out" or "rod out" a clogged pipe with a plumber's snake. Underground piping systems for landscaping drainage or the disposal of stormwater or groundwater also use low-pressure gravity flow, so fittings for these systems resemble larger-scale DWV fittings. With high peak-flow volumes, the design and construction of these systems may resemble those of storm sewers. Fittings for central vacuum systems are similar to DWV fittings, but are usually of thinner and lighter construction because the weight of the materials conveyed is less.
Plumbing is all about pipes and fittings. Pipes establish the runs that bring or take water, with fittings controlling and manipulating the flow. Pipes are simple enough: they're straight, and come in different sizes. Pick the right material and length, and you're pretty much good to go. Fittings - for a plumber - are much the same. But for the average homeowner, there are a lot of fittings.
Students will learn to develop and interpret plumbing drawings typically found in construction. To insert a plumbing symbol: 1. Miscellaneous Requirements a. Pipes located in unheated basements or garages should be insulated with a commercial covering. Read and interpret sample industrial mechanical services drawings. Accurately drawing 3D objects is difcult for untrained individuals, as it requires an understanding of perspective and its effects on ge-ometry and proportions. Detailed CAD drawings are available on request.
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Fresh water comes in under pressure to fixtures such as sinks , bathtubs, showers and toilet tanks. Waste water is expelled from the home through drain pipes and from there into the sewer or septic system. Vent stacks help the water drain and vent sewer gases to the outside. Here are some of the most common:. Adaptors connect pipes that are not the same type. Because an adaptor can be male or female on one end, it can turn a pipe male or female.
Офицер был поражен этим открытием. - Кольцо? - Он вдруг забеспокоился. Вгляделся в полоску на пальце и пристыжено покраснел. - О Боже, - хмыкнул он, - значит, эта история подтверждается. Беккеру даже сделалось дурно.
Я знаю. Я считываю их с вашего компьютера. Стратмор недоверчиво покачал головой. - Ты пробрался в мой кабинет. - Нет.
У сотрудников лаборатории систем безопасности была единственная обязанность - поддерживать ТРАНСТЕКСТ в чистоте, следить, чтобы в него не проникли вирусы. Он знал, что пятнадцатичасовой прогон может означать только одно: зараженный файл попал в компьютер и выводит из строя программу. Все, чему его учили, свидетельствовало о чрезвычайности ситуации. Тот факт, что в лаборатории систем безопасности никого нет, а монитор был выключен, больше не имело значения. Главное теперь - сам ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Стратмор подошел ближе. - Чатрукьян мертв. - Да неужели. Ты сам его и убил.
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Fittings are fixed in the plumbing system to join straight pipes or any section of tubes. We can say that the water-supply fittings like elbow, tee.Zoila P. 29.03.2021 at 02:50
Sprinkler System Manufacturers.Credfolddebumb 02.04.2021 at 20:37
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