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As I have been finalising the book edit, I have increasingly been drawn to maps to help tell the story — both the Khmer Rouge history, and that of the school program.

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Place and Placelessness, Edward Relph

This post is the second in a series about the past and future of places. The previous one explained my overall aims and approach, and noted that my emphasis is on material places rather than the more abstract notion of place. This is also the first of two specifically about the history of places that examine changes in the ways people have made and related to particular places since the first permanent human settlements were made about 12, years ago.

I have divided this history into two parts mainly because I think it makes what would otherwise be a very long post much more manageable. I have take the year as a mid-point partly for convenience, but also also because evidence of how places were made and experienced before then is mostly in the form of ruins and archaeological sites, and since about then there are whole buildings, landscapes and parts of towns that are more or less intact and have been continuously used.

My hope is that this broad historical survey gives some indication of how places have changed over the course of human history, and will clarify whether we are currently going through another place shift, and, if so, how this might play out. Approach and Initial Qualifications Approach: I summarized my approach, which borrows the ideas of the historian Fernand Braudel, in a previous post. To that I will simply add here that here my aim is to identify historical periods which demonstrate consistency in the ways places were made and experienced.

Experiences of and relationships to places, which are more difficult to ascertain retroactively, I will consider mostly in terms of advances in communication — roads, printing, railways and so on. I illustrate them where possible with my own knowledge of particular places, especially in Europe and North America. The histories of places in Asia, Africa, and Latin America follow different paths, although advances in communications, colonialism and global trade since about have ensured that large swathes of recent place history have been shared across continents and cultures.

Innovative practices and attitudes to place evolved over decades or centuries, came to prevail for a length of time, then were gradually replaced.

In effect, they identify a distinctive and widely shared sense of place which reflected the spirit of the times. In this brief history I am mostly interested in innovative practices that were widely shared, and I pay little attention to these non-conforming places. Sometimes these were little more than traces in ruins and names, sometimes they were almost complete landscapes that endured because there was no good reason to replace them, sometimes they have been manifest in revivals of values and architectural styles.

These remnants indicate the importance of continuity in places, which I will examine in a separate post. In other words, the current era has the greatest legacy of past places. I will begin with those. Population Growth and Urban Growth Population Growth: Almost every century in the last 12, years has seen more people in more parts of the world, and since about there have been many more people in much more populous places.

Graphs of population growth have two distinct elements. And since an almost vertical line to and the present population of about 7. There have been regional and temporary setbacks because of plagues, famines and wars, but these scarcely show. The fundamental fact is that the history of places is a history of accommodating population growth. Urban growth. Population growth has been accommodated through diffusion — more people in more places — and in some ways from the outset but especially over the last two hundred years, by concentrating populations in urban places.

The first cities by current standards, actually small urban settlements with populations of a few thousand were founded about BCE. Since then the tendency of cities everywhere has been to grow bigger. This is important to the history of place for two different reasons. One is that the proportion of people living in cities has steadily increased, though it probably remained under 10 percent in most parts of the world until about Since then it has accelerated faster than population growth, and now surpasses 50 percent for the world and 80 percent in most developed countries.

The second reason is that the history of cities is better documented in archaeological and written records than the history of rural areas. This means that there is a bias towards urban places, even when they held only a small proportion of the population, simply because there is more information about them.

The First Stable Places Humans in the Stone Age depended on foraging and hunting, were continually on the move, and left little evidence of life in fixed places, presumably because they did not have the skills, means or inclination to modify environments.

Nevertheless, they must have had the sense of place shared by all sentient beings that made it possible to find their way around, and to get back to wherever there was good shelter or food. In addition, cave paintings in Indonesia and Spain, dated respectively to 44, BCE and 35, BCE, indicate that they identified places with special significance. Places as distinctive and enduring creations where people lived and died, and through which they connected to the world around them, begins with sites of stone monoliths, such as the one at Gobleki Tepe in Turkey made about 9, BCE.

Given the considerable work necessary to create those, and the fact that they were roughly contemporary with the gradual domestication of crops and animals, it is reasonable to assume that these were associated with settlements that provided a measure of security and made possible long-term connections between communities and particular locations. In other words, though there is scant archaeological evidence of domestic placemaking, it was probably then that enduring attachments to place first developed.

Earthworks and standing stones at Avebury in England are remnants of a ceremonial site dating from about BCE. The site is partially occupied by a village with medieval origins. The Invention of Urban Places A placemaking leap from small settlements and ceremonial sites to cities happened about 3, BCE in several locations around the world, most notably in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia.

These ancient cities were distinctively different from all previous settlements because of their relatively large and dense populations, planned streets laid out in a grid pattern, tall buildings, marketplaces, and grand temples.

They were also centres of administration where writing on stone tablets was invented, perhaps to keep records of food supplies, and this presumably resulted in a class distinction between the literate few and everybody else.

Although the great majority of people continued to live in small villages for the next three millennia, these early cities were a place invention that endured, steadily grew, and now prevails. The first city in Mesopotamia is thought to have been Uruk, not far from what is now Baghdad.

At its peak about 2, BCE it may have had a population of 50, but eventually declined for various environmental and political reasons, and was abandoned before CE.

What is often considered the first work of literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh , was written there about BCE in cuneiform on stone tablets. It begins with what probably the first written description of a place:.

See how its ramparts gleam like copper in the sun. Climb the stone staircase, more ancient than the mind can imagine, approach the Eanna Temple, sacred to Ishtar, a temple that no king has equaled in size or beauty, walk on the wall of Uruk, follow its course around the city, inspect its mighty foundations, examine its brickwork, how masterfully it is built, observe the land it encloses: the palm trees, the gardens, the orchards, the glorious palaces and temples, the shops and marketplaces, the houses, the public squares.

In Ancient Greece in the first millennium BCE the practice began to take on a distinctive character that is notable in part because such good archaeological and written records have survived. An important part of this distinctiveness was the development of city-states, essentially politically defined urban regions, each with a city supported by an agricultural economy, and with its own deity revered and honoured in temples such as those on the Acropolis for Athena, the goddess of Athens.

Each city-state also had its own form of government to direct the everyday life of its citizens. The most notable was the democratic system invented in Athens, which redefined how at least some people related to place because citizens which meant adult males, not women or slaves could meet in a public space, the Agora, to debate and vote on matters that would affect life in the places where they lived. The Parthenon in Athens.

The aesthetically meticulous architecture of Greek temples set a standard for western architecture that has been repeatedly revived and is still admired. In this respect, ancient Greek placemaking has echoed through the centuries. Some Greek cities, such as Athens, had inherited irregular or organic plans from earlier settlements, but where possible considerable attention was paid to creating a carefully arranged layout of spaces such as the Agora and sites of temples.

In cities that had to be rebuilt for instance after a war these public spaces were incorporated into a layout system of rectangular city blocks in what can be considered the first systematic instances of placemaking and town planning,.

The plan for Piraeus, the port of Athens, about BCE, by Hippodamus considered to be the first town planner , showing rectangular blocks, with spaces for the Agora, and Temple and Theatre. Source: F. Haverfield, , Ancient Town Planning. In Hellenic Greece people were often identified by their birthplace — Hippodamus of Miletus, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, and so on, and the intellectual culture included a desire to understand the world and its places.

While Ancient Greece did not have an empire, its citizens explored and migrated to various places in their known world, in effect creating what in retrospect appears to have been a geographically open and extended sense of place.

The known world according to the geographer Eratosthenes about BCE, indicating the extended sense of place in Ancient Greece. The lines indicate suggest the way he accurately measured the circumference of the earth by measuring the angles of shadows in wells along the line of longitude. Standardized Places of the Roman Empire About BCE the city-states of Ancient Greece were assimilated into the expanding empire of the Romans, who then borrowed and adapted many aspects of Greek thought and placemaking, including architectural styles and aspects of town planning.

But whereas the Greek attitude to place tended to be cerebral, democratic, spiritual and aesthetic, the Roman attitude was mostly administrative and practical. The Romans added innovations such as aqueducts, communal baths, and tenement buildings; amphitheatres for mass entertainment were substituted for theatres; monuments were built to honour emperors; religion was domesticated every dwelling had its gods.

Roman placemaking. In the centre, a commercial street with a stepping-stone crosswalk that allowed wheeled carts to pass. On the right, the Arch of Constantine built to celebrate his military victories and the Colosseum in Rome. Perhaps most notably in terms of impacts on place, the Romans developed a continent wide network of roads that facilitated both communications by messages written on papyrus and rapid deployment of troops. This network allowed the imperial centre of Rome to command an empire that came to include territory all around the Mediterranean, far into the Middle East and into Britain.

Wherever those roads and trade routes led, new settlements were created along lines specified in the first century BCE by the architect Vitruvius, whose books precisely detailed site selection, grid street patterns, street widths and orientation, the location and character of colonnades, and the size of city blocks.

The roads and settlements offered both security and comfort to local peoples and their places, who where assimilated into the Roman way of life. Roman culture at the very edge of the empire. This is a reconstruction of a Roman bath in Caerleon, a frontier town and military camp in Wales that also had a small amphitheatre.

The swimmer and text are projections onto the pool. The Roman attitude to place was described by the geographer Strabo about 10 CE.

Geographers, with their knowledge of the cosmos, wide travel, and careful observations, were especially capable of evaluating places, and this enabled them to interpret the providential order of landscapes, to distinguish good sites from unpropitious ones, and to advise others, especially political and military leaders, on how to take advantage of them.

Whether the leaders paid much attention to this advice is not clear, but there is ample evidence that the great Roman network of roads and trade routes carried fashions for amphitheatres, therapeutic baths, villas with under-floor heating and elegant mosaics, and carefully organised grid town plans throughout the empire. Roads and trade routes do, however, run in two directions. As they took Roman culture to the frontiers, they also brought people from throughout the empire to Rome. At its peak the city had a population of about 1 million perhaps 30 percent of whom were slaves.

It had many of the elements we still identify with large cities — stadiums, centres of government, multi-story tenements, water supply and sewerage systems. But it was also filled with noise, congestion, inequalities and what Lewis Mumford The City in History, p.

The Dark Ages and the Disaggregation of Places After about CE the Roman empire began to decline for reasons that included corrupt emperors, widespread decadence, internal power struggles, overdependence on slave labour, administrative inefficiency, and a series of assaults by Saxons, Vandals and Goths that pushed back the frontiers and eventually reached Rome in when the capital of the empire was moved to Constantinople.

What happened to places during and after this decline is open to debate because between about CE and CE there are few descriptions and little evidence of how people lived. One view is that the decline of imperial control opened the way for decentralization and this led to an period of local independence and creativity. By the end of the 5 th century the population of Rome had dropped to about 30,, and people lived in the ruins of civilization.

Elsewhere places were disaggregated, the infrastructure built by the Romans crumbled, towns and villages were abandoned or became barely self-sustaining, and the countryside was taken over by waves of immigrant invaders — Goths, Huns, Saxons or Vikings, depending on the specific region of Europe. Those new immigrants left remarkably little evidence of placemaking and except for legacy of place names, which have filtered through into the names of towns and cities.

In Britain, for instance, the suffix —borough is derived from the Anglo-Saxon — burh e. Middlesborough meaning fortified settlement, while —ham Birmingham and —by Grimsby both mean village, York probably comes from the Viking Jorvik. Normandy means the land of the North Men, or Vikings.

Otherwise, the primary impact of the Dark Ages was one of taking places apart or allowing them to decay, of placeunmaking rather than placemaking. The History of Places continues in another post….

Places in the Middle Ages or Medieval Period that about to , the Age of Reason about to , the Industrial Period about to , and the Modern Era about to is summarised in the post The History of Places Part Two: to the present.

Place and Placelessness

He is an emeritus professor of the University of Toronto , where he served from to as Chair of the Division of Social Sciences at the Scarborough campus. From to Relph was Associate Principal responsible for the expansion and redevelopment of that campus, and served again as Chair of Social Sciences from to Relph now lives in Victoria, British Columbia. Relph has written many academic articles and book chapters that investigate the phenomenological and experiential foundations of geography, and others that elaborate sense of place and the ways experiences of place are currently being transformed. Place and Placelessness was reassessed and updated at a conference organized by Rob Freestone and Edgar Liu of the University of New South Wales that resulted in the publication of Place and Placelessness Revisited edited by Freestone and Liu in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This biography of a living person does not include any references or sources.

Toronto describes the diverse and remarkable transformations that have occurred in the urban landscapes of Toronto, especially over the last fifty years as it has grown from a provincial industrial city into multicentered, multicultural, world-city region that is one of the largest metropolitan areas in North America. Published at a critical time in the history of the Canadian metropolis, Ted Relph's volume explains Toronto both to itself and to the world. Edward Relph's study suggests that they should avoid the long plane trip and check out Toronto. Toronto , Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,

Place and Placelessness, Edward Relph

Published March by Pion. Written in English. Nominations of William A.

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Edward Relph-Place and Placelessness (1976)

Edward Relph

It is highly recommended for those just embarking on their careers as well as those who need a reminder of how and why geography moved from the margins of social thought to its very core. Read any chapter and you will want to compare it with another. Sidaway, School of Geography, University of Plymouth A unique resource for students, Key Texts in Human Geography provides concise but rigorous overviews of the key texts that have formed post-war human geography. The text has been designed as a student-friendly guide that will: explain the text in relation to the geographical debates at the time of writing discuss the text's main arguments and sources of evidence review the initial reception, subsequent evaluation, and continued influence of each key texts contribution to how geographers understand space and place Intended Audience: Written in a clear and accessible way, by acknowledged scholars of the texts, an essential resources for undergraduates, Key Texts in Human Geography will be widely used and highly cited in courses on methods and approaches in geography. A deep human need exists for associations with significant places. If we choose to ignore that need, and to allow the forces of placelessness to continue unchallenged, then the future can only hold an environment in which places simply do not matter.

The term sense of place has been used in many different ways. It is a multidimensional, complex construct used to characterize the relationship between people and spatial settings. The term is used in urban and rural studies in relation to place-making and place-attachment of communities to their environment or homeland. Cultural geographers , anthropologists , sociologists and urban planners study why certain places hold special meaning to particular people or animals. Places that lack a "sense of place" are sometimes referred to as "placeless" or "inauthentic". Edward Relph, a cultural geographer, investigates the "placelessness" of these locations.

To what extent and how do the media — press, broadcasting or social — influence our perceptions of places and brands, and as such their image and reputation? With what consequences? Media representations play a crucial role in the place image context. Perceptions of places, including countries or tourist destinations, are influenced by the ways in which they are represented by the media Boisen et al. Media reporting can also turn remotely located places into areas of possible concern for people living thousands of kilometers away Chouliaraki, ; Cottle, a, b. Regarding the amount and nature of media coverage of places, Avraham and Ketter , p. Carroll and McCombs offer some guiding principles that help understand the influence of news coverage on corporate reputation:.

structured in human environmental experience, since our understanding of space is related to the. places we inhabit, which in turn derive meaning from their.

Place and placelessness

By utilizing cognitive mapping and leveraging georeferenced text data, this paper aims to suggest a new visualization method that combines the advantages of both conventional and state-of-the-art research techniques to depict the collective identity of place in a single image. The study addressed two research questions: 1 Can crowd-sourced text data be utilized in representing place identity? In particular, to improve the conventional cognitive mapping method to depict the collective identity of a city, we draw cognitive maps of Bundang and Ilsan developed in the s, as well as Songdo and Dongtan developed in the s, just outside of the administrative boundaries of Seoul in Korea, through a computational method based on crowd-sourced opinions collected from social media. We open the possibility for the use of social media text data to capture the identity of cities and suggest a graphical image through which people without prior information could also easily apprehend the overall image of a city. The work in this paper is expected to provide a methodological technique for appropriate decision-making and the evaluation of urban identity to shape a more unique and imageable city.

Согласно информации, появившейся в окне, команда была подана менее двадцати минут. Сьюзан помнила, что за последние двадцать минут вводила только свой персональный код, когда выходила переговорить со Стратмором.

 - Танкадо был известен стремлением к совершенству. Вы сами это знаете. Он никогда не оставил бы жучков в своей программе. - Их слишком много! - воскликнула Соши, выхватив распечатку из рук Джаббы и сунув ее под нос Сьюзан.

Интересно, увидит ли пилот лирджета, что он подъезжает. Есть ли у него оружие. Откроет ли он вовремя дверцу кабины. Но, приблизившись к освещенному пространству открытого ангара, Беккер понял, что его вопросы лишены всякого смысла.

Sense of place

 Нам необходимо отключиться от Интернета, - продолжил Джабба.


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This post is the second in a series about the past and future of places.