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Grading And Staging Of Cancer Pdf

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Knowing the stage and grade of a person's cancer helps doctors know what treatment to use. It also helps predict how long the person will survive or whether there is a good chance for a cure. Staging is a way to describe how much cancer is in the body and where it is located.

Knowing the stage and grade of a person's cancer helps doctors know what treatment to use. It also helps predict how long the person will survive or whether there is a good chance for a cure. Staging is a way to describe how much cancer is in the body and where it is located.

Cancer Staging

We studied different histological types of BC and their prognostic indicators in part of Southwestern Nigeria. A year retrospective study of archival tissue-paraffin blocks and records of surgical cases documented as BCs between January and December was done. Tumor classification was made after the World Health Organization guidelines.

Nottingham prognostic index was employed in scoring the prognosis. The mean age was The age group from 50 to 59 years was most affected. Out of total cases, the most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type The majority Observation for lymph node metastasis confirmed that Prediction of a chance of survival showed moderate prognosis in the majority Although early detection of BC in this region was considerably poor, there was a better outcome compared with some other black populations.

Indexing of BC pattern on a regional standpoint may serve a new direction toward better management considering the associated geographic disparity. Breast cancer BC remains one of the most common female cancers globally. In Nigeria, different histological types of BC have been reported across the country. Moreover, apart from geographic consideration, better management of BC in guiding decision-making especially from various alternatives of therapeutic options involves the availability of robust clinical and pathological information.

Pathological investigation requires histologic and prognostic parameters. Presently, the three established prognostic indicators in clinical and pathological investigation involve; degree of axillary lymph node involvement, primary tumor size, and histological grade. It is incorporated in both the TNM staging system and Nottingham grading system. It provides prognostic information in many tumors, including BC. Application of these tools in investigations of incidence and trend of BCs with regard to clinical presentation, histological classification, tumor staging and their predictive outcome in every individual ethnic group may impact more to the knowledge of BC.

Our aim was to study clinical presentation, histological pattern, and survival outcome of BC in part of Southwestern Nigeria. This is a hospital-based retrospective study.

The study involved retrieval of archival records and tissue-paraffin blocks of surgical cases histologically documented as BC between January and December These two hospitals, by geographic location, also serve many urban, semi-urban, and rural communities of neighboring states Ekiti and Kwara States.

The population in this region are dominated by the Yoruba. The permission of the Heads of Histopathology Departments of the two hospitals was sought and the departmental rules were duly followed.

Data generated during the course of this study were accessible to the investigators only. All information was coded by number and no name was recorded. All data were transferred to a password-protected personal computer.

Tissue blocks with incomplete information or records without tissue blocks were equally excluded. The original request cards were retrieved and studied. Furthermore, essential clinical details which included the age and macroscopic descriptions including size and nodal involvement of BC were recorded.

The stained slides were finally observed under the microscope and reported by a consultant pathologist. Histological classification of the tumor was done according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Tumor grading was accomplished using the Nottingham modification of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system. In addition, Nottingham prognostic index NPI was applied to score the prognosis for the possible outcome.

Data obtained were reported in percentage frequency and proportion using descriptive statistics. The peak incidence age was the 6 th decade 50—59 years. Majority of the cases occurred between the 4 th and 7 th decades 30—69 years. The most common histological variant of female BC recorded was infiltrating ductal carcinoma IDC cases; Other less common types were invasive lobular carcinoma ILC 16 cases; 4. The uncommon types recorded were three cases 0.

Frequency distribution and comparison of histologic phenotypes of female breast cancer across Nigeria. Red arrow indicates the clusters of malignant cells; blue arrows indicate the pools of extracellular mucin. Blue arrows indicate the presence of tubules lined by tumor cells that exhibit apocrine metaplasia. Red arrow indicates the presence of solid, syncytial-like sheets of large cells with vesicular, pleomorphic nuclei with prominent nucleoli.

Blue arrow depicts a mitotic figure. Black arrow depicts moderate to marked lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate surrounding the tumor. Black arrow indicates the presence of a matrix-producing tumor.

Blue arrow indicates squamous cell carcinoma. Black arrow shows the presence of nodules of proliferating stroma covered by epithelium. The tumor has infiltrative borders. Frequency distribution of histologic grade, tumor size, and lymph node positivity in female breast cancers. All the BC cases had specified tumor sizes. Thirty-one 31 cases; 9.

Table 2 also illustrates the degree of lymph node involvement. Lymph node biopsy was reviewed in the record for a possible note on metastasis of individual cases. Two hundred and sixty-one cases Of a total number of lymph node involved or positivity, 77 cases Five cases 1. The NPI conventionally combines nodal status, tumor size, and histological grade for assessment of possible survival outcome. In this study, we observed various histological forms of BC, but there was a predominance of invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type IDC compared with other phenotypes.

Although the reason behind this is yet unknown, there may be a connection with increased western lifestyle in this zone.

In contrast, the prevalence of ILC in the present study was lower than the reported figures in many other parts of Nigeria, including Kaduna State Northwest ,[ 14 ] Sokoto and Borno states Northeast [ 15 , 18 ] as well as Delta state South-south. Moreover, our study recorded a low prevalence of medullary carcinoma compared with many other centers across the Northern belt of Nigeria[ 14 , 15 ] but more than that recorded in part of southern sub-region South-south.

Mucinous carcinoma is a mucin-producing BC phenotype bounded by tumor cells. It has been documented to have a better prognosis than IDC. Of note, the pattern of spread showed inexplicable geographic disparity, including intra-regional distribution. In addition, low prevalence of carcinosarcoma, metaplastic carcinoma, malignant phyllodes tumor, poorly differentiated carcinoma, apocrine, and tubular carcinomas were recorded in our study.

However, these were rarely or less reported in many other studies across Nigeria. Meanwhile, MPT is rarely seen or recorded across Nigeria at large. It is categorized as a rare fibroepithelial malignancy representing approximately 0. Furthermore, the present study showed that BC presentation is more prevalent among the age range of 50—59 years. This is in agreement with the previous study by Okoye et al.

However, this was notably higher compared with many reports in various other regions across Nigeria, including Zaria in Northwest,[ 14 ] Bayelsa, South-south,[ 22 ] Abia, Southeast[ 1 ] and Abuja, and Northcentral.

On the contrary, the mean presentation age is about 12 years earlier than the reported mean age However, a large body of research implies that the racial differences between the Black and White are due to combined effects of a complex interaction of biologic and non-biologic factors.

These factors are thus suggested to have plausible influences on the histologic stage of diagnosis, tumor characteristics, tumor type and size, lymph node metastasis, obesity, and other health-related factors.

Meanwhile, the report shows that histological grading has good reproducibility and useful as an important independent prognostic factor for predicting outcome in patients with BCs. It further states that a combination of histological grading with tumor size, lymph node involvement, and the NPI offers best and remarkable stratification for management of these patients.

However, studies involving Nepalese[ 8 ] and Americans show a predominance of lower grade proportions without any advanced tumor grade documented, constituting Furthermore, our study showed that very few among the patients had tumor size of 2 cm or less.

We observed that the majority of the cases in these areas had tumor sizes within Stages 2 and 3 with overall average tumor size of 6. This is in agreement with a previous study[ 28 ] from our study area. This means that patients in this region tend to evade early detection of BC.

The reasons for this may be partly linked with consequential poor awareness, poverty, socio-cultural behavior, and lack of instituted screening program using ancillary investigative tools. Our centers currently lack these ancillary methods, and our screening method has been mass education on self-breast examination.

In addition, previous studies in Nigeria only looked at the lymph node in the context of either positive or negative for malignancy without actually specify the number of positive lymph nodes for staging. Likewise, many studies often ignore the report of lymph node status during the investigation.

This has precluded further study in this area related to survival rate using NPIs for predicting the outcome. The present study thus looked at the number of lymph node biopsied and the number that were positive.

Alternatively, we could not estimate absolute survival rate of individual patients, partly due to lack of follow-up report on a timely basis and lack of adequate cancer-specific death record. However, we stratified the patients according to prognostic scores using NPI index[ 12 ] considering the number of positive lymph nodes, among other factors. We observed that the majority of the patients showed moderate prognosis.

Our findings are in tandem with a previous study in a sub-Saharan African Ghanaian population[ 29 ] but worse than that reported in the Libyan population in the Northern African region.

The pathological features of primary epithelial breast malignancies seen in some parts of southwestern Nigeria showed high proportion characteristic with considerable large tumor sizes, intermediate-high histological grades, and presence of lymph node metastasis on occasions.

This shows that early detection of BC in these areas was poor. On the contrary, the chance of survival was better compared with other Black populations documented with advanced cancers of the breast. Further studies are therefore encouraged to involve molecular and biological characterizations.

Staging and Grading

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We studied different histological types of BC and their prognostic indicators in part of Southwestern Nigeria. A year retrospective study of archival tissue-paraffin blocks and records of surgical cases documented as BCs between January and December was done. Tumor classification was made after the World Health Organization guidelines. Nottingham prognostic index was employed in scoring the prognosis. The mean age was The age group from 50 to 59 years was most affected. Out of total cases, the most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type

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Interactive Tools

After cancer is diagnosed, healthcare providers will begin to determine the grade and stage of the cancer. This helps them to plan the best treatment and look at overall outcomes and goals. The grade of a cancer describes what the cancer cells look like using a microscope. Most cancers are graded by how they compare with normal cells.

For most types of cancer, doctors need to know how much cancer there is and where it is among other things to help determine the best treatment options. For example, the best treatment for an early-stage cancer may be surgery or radiation , while a more advanced-stage cancer may need treatments that reach all parts of the body, such as chemotherapy , targeted drug therapy , or immunotherapy. Sometimes, cancers with different stages might be treated the same way, or cancers with the same stage might be treated in different ways.

ZERO is a free, comprehensive patient support service to help patients and their families navigate insurance and financial obstacles to cover treatment and other critical needs associated with cancer. Staging is the process used to find out if the cancer has spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body, using biopsy and imaging. More detailed information on staging is available at the bottom of this page. The grade is also called the Gleason score.

Cancer Staging and Grading

Cancer Grade vs. Cancer Stage

Skip to Content. This is called the stage. Use the menu to see other pages. Staging is a way of describing where a cancer is located, if or where it has spread, and whether it is affecting other parts of the body.

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Это резиновая капсула, которая при попадании растворяется. Все тихо и чисто. Перед сердечным приступом мистер Танкадо не почувствовал ничего, кроме легкого укола. - Травматическая пуля, - задумчиво повторил Беккер.  - Вот откуда шрам.

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Halette V. 23.03.2021 at 06:34

These tests show whether the breast cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Martine P. 29.03.2021 at 21:23

sy of a tumor may not always be repre sentative of the whole neoplasm. Grading has no prognostic value in certain types of cancers, such as melanoma of the skin.

Tilly D. 29.03.2021 at 21:40

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