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Rf And Microwave Engineering Lecture Notes

Views 4 Downloads 1 File size 2MB. Apparatus and techniques may be described qualitatively as "microwave" when the wavelengths of signals are roughly the same as the dimensions of the equipment, so that lumped-element circuit theory is inaccurate.

As a consequence, practical microwave technique tends to move away from the discrete resistors, capacitors, and inductors used with lower frequency radio waves. Instead, distributed circuit elements and transmission-line theory are more useful methods for design, analysis. Open-wire and coaxial transmission lines give way to waveguides, and lumped-element tuned circuits are replaced by cavity resonators or resonant lines.

Effects of reflection, polarization, scattering, diffraction, and atmospheric absorption usually associated with visible light are of practical significance in the study of microwave propagation. The same equations of electromagnetic theory apply at all frequencies. While the name may suggest a micrometer wavelength, it is better understood as indicating wavelengths very much smaller than those used in radio broadcasting.

The boundaries between far infrared light, terahertz radiation, microwaves, and ultra-high-frequency radio waves are fairly arbitrary and are used variously between different fields of study.

Electromagnetic waves longer lower frequency than microwaves are called "radio waves". Electromagnetic radiation with shorter wavelengths may be called "millimeter waves", terahertz radiation or even T-rays. In , Heinrich Hertz was the first to demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus that produced and detected microwaves in the UHF region.

The design necessarily used horse-and-buggy materials, including a horse trough, a wrought iron point spark, Leyden jars, and a length of zinc gutter whose parabolic cross-section worked as a reflection antenna. In J. Bose publicly demonstrated radio control of a bell using millimetre wavelengths, and conducted research into the propagation of microwaves.

Plot of the zenith atmospheric transmission on the summit of Mauna Kea throughout the entire gigahertz range of the electromagnetic spectrum at a precipitable water vapor level of 0. Above GHz, the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Earth's atmosphere is so great that it is effectively opaque, until the atmosphere becomes transparent again in the so-called infrared and optical window frequency ranges. Microwave Sources Vacuum tube based devices operate on the ballistic motion of electrons in a vacuum under the influence of controlling electric or magnetic fields, and include the magnetron, klystron, travelling wave tube TWT , and gyrotron.

These devices work in the density modulated mode, rather than the current modulated mode. This means that they work on the basis of clumps of electrons flying ballistically through them, rather than using a continuous stream.

A maser is a device similar to a laser, except that it works at microwave frequencies. Starting in the early 's, frequency division multiplex was used to send up to 5, telephone channels on each microwave radio channel, with as many as ten radio channels combined into one antenna for the hop to the next site, up to 70 km away. Licensed long-range up to about 25 km Wireless Internet Access services can be found in many countries but not the USA in the 3.

The IEEE The commercial implementations are in the 2. Some mobile phone networks, like GSM, also use the lower microwave frequencies. There is also more bandwidth in the microwave spectrum than in the rest of the radio spectrum; the usable bandwidth below MHz is less than MHz while many GHz can be used above MHz.

Typically, microwaves are used in television news to transmit a signal from a remote location to a television station from a specially equipped van.

Development of radar was accelerated during World War II due to its great military utility. Now radar is widely used for applications such as air traffic control, navigation of ships, and speed limit enforcement.

Microwave ovens became common kitchen appliances in Western countries in the late s, following development of inexpensive cavity magnetrons. NASA worked in the s and early s to research the possibilities of using Solar power satellite SPS systems with large solar arrays that would beam power down to the Earth's surface via microwaves.

Microwave frequency bands The microwave spectrum is usually defined as electromagnetic energy ranging from approximately 1 GHz to GHz in frequency, but older usage includes lower frequencies.

Most common applications are within the 1 to 40 GHz range. For other definitions see Letter Designations of Microwave Bands Health effects Microwaves contain insufficient energy to directly chemically change substances by ionization, and so are an example of nonionizing radiation.

The word "radiation" refers to the fact that energy can radiate, and not to the different nature and effects of different kinds of energy. Specifically, the term in this context is not to be confused with radioactivity. A great number of studies have been undertaken in the last two decades, most concluding they are safe. It is understood that microwave radiation at a level that causes heating of living tissue is hazardous due to the possibility of overheating and burns and most countries have standards limiting exposure, such as the Federal Communications Commission RF safety regulations.

Synthetic reviews of literature indicate the predominance of their safety of use. History and research Perhaps the first, documented, formal use of the term microwave occurred in "When trials with wavelengths as low as 18 cm were made known, there was undisguised surprise that the problem of the micro-wave had been solved so soon.

Scattering parameters "Scattering" is an idea taken from billiards, or pool. One takes a cue ball and fires it up the table at a collection of other balls. After the impact, the energy and momentum in the cue ball is divided between all the balls involved in the impact.

The cue ball "scatters" the stationary target balls and in turn is deflected or "scattered" by them. In a microwave circuit, the equivalent to the energy and momentum of the cue ball is the amplitude and phase of the incoming wave on a transmission line. A rather loose analogy, this.

This incoming wave is "scattered" by the circuit and its energy is partitioned between all the possible outgoing waves on all the other transmission lines connected to the circuit. Formally, s-parameters can be defined for any collection of linear electronic components, whether or not the wave view of the power flow in the circuit is necessary.

They are algebraically related to the impedance parameters z-parameters , also to the admittance parameters y-parameters and to a notional characteristic impedance of the transmission lines. A visual demonstration of the meaning of scattering may be given by throwing a piece of chalk at a blackboard An n-port microwave network has n arms into which power can be fed and from which power can be taken.

In general, power can get from any arm as input to any other arm as output. There are thus n incoming waves and n outgoing waves. We also observe that power can be reflected by a port, so the input power to a single port can partition between all the ports of the network to form outgoing waves.

Associated with each port is the notion of a "reference plane" at which the wave amplitude and phase is defined. Usually the reference plane associated with a certain port is at the same place with respect to incoming and outgoing waves. The n incoming wave complex amplitudes are usually designated by the n complex quantities an, and the n outgoing wave complex quantities are designated by the n complex quantities bn.

The incoming wave quantities are assembled into an n-vector A and the outgoing wave quantities into an n-vector B. It completely determines the behaviour of the network. In general, the elements of this matrix, which are termed "sparameters", are all frequency-dependent. Here, a refers to an if V is Vn and I In for the nth port. Here, I is the n by n unit matrix.

The matrix of z parameters which has n squared elements is the inverse of the matrix of y parameters. In the case of a microwave network having two ports only, an input and an output, the s-matrix has four s-parameters, designated s11 s12 s21 s22 These four complex quantites actually contain eight separate numbers; the real and imaginary parts, or the modulus and the phase angle, of each of the four complex scattering parameters.

Let us consider the physical meaning of these s-parameters. If the output port 2 is terminated, that is, the transmission line is connected to a matched load impedance giving rise to no reflections, then there is no input wave on port 2. The input wave on port 1 a1 gives rise to a reflected wave at port 1 s11a1 and a transmitted wave at port 2 which is absorbed in the termination on 2.

The transmitted wave size is s21a1. We see therefore that the sizes of S11 and S21 determine how the input power splits between the possible output paths. Clearly, if our 2-port microwave network represents a good amplifier, we need s11 rather small and s21 quite big, let us say 10 for a 20dB amplifier.

In general, the s-parameters tell us how much power "comes back" or "comes out" when we "throw power at" a network. They also contain phase shift information. Reciprocity Reciprocity has to do with the symmetry of the s-matrix. A reciprocal s-matrix has symmetry about the leading diagonal. Many networks are reciprocal. A transmission line section is an example of a reciprocal 2-port. A dual directional coupler is an example of a reciprocal 4-port. Amplifiers are non-reciprocal; they have to be, otherwise they would be unstable.

Ferrite devices are deliberately non-reciprocal; they are used to construct isolators, phase shifters, circulators, and power combiners. Examples of scattering matrices. One-port S-matrix This is a matrix consisting of a single element, the scattering parameter or reflection coefficient.

You may think of it as a 1 by 1 matrix; one row and one column. The input to a transmission line of length A 9 cm length of waveguide of cross sectional dimensions 2.

The waveguide above has a capacitative iris placed mid way along it. That will give you the phase shift on reflection as well. Write down the s matrix for a perfect circulator with degrees of phase shifts between successive ports. A coaxial cable is connected in a Y arrangement with each arm At the junction, the cable arms are all connected in parallel. Write down its S matrix and comment on this method of splitting power from a TV down lead to serve two television sets.

If a 1-port network has reflection gain, its s-parameter has size or modulus greater than unity. More power is reflected than is incident. The power usually comes from a dc power supply; Gunn diodes can be used as amplifiers in combination with circulators which separate the incoming and outgoing waves.

Suppose the reflection gain from our 1-port is s11, having modulus bigger than unity. If the 1-port is connected to a transmission line with a load impedance having reflection coefficient g1, then oscillations may well occur if g1s11 is bigger than unity.

The round trip gain must be unity or greater at an integer number of 2 pi radians phase shift along the path. This is called the "Barkhausen criterion" for oscillations. Clearly if we have a Gunn source matched to a matched transmission line, no oscillations will occur because g1 will be zero.

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Views 3 Downloads 1 File size 2MB. Apparatus and techniques may be described qualitatively as "microwave" when the wavelengths of signals are roughly the same as the dimensions of the equipment, so that lumped-element circuit theory is inaccurate. As a consequence, practical microwave technique tends to move away from the discrete resistors, capacitors, and inductors used with lower frequency radio waves. Instead, distributed circuit elements and transmission-line theory are more useful methods for design, analysis. Open-wire and coaxial transmission lines give way to waveguides, and lumped-element tuned circuits are replaced by cavity resonators or resonant lines.


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