File Name: japanese transitive and intransitive verbs list .zip
When using a Japanese verb, it is important to know whether the verb is a transitive or intransitive verb.
I bet you do. I woke up can not. Let me know in the comments.
A transitive verb is a verb that accepts one or more objects. This contrasts with intransitive verbs , which do not have objects. Transitivity is traditionally thought a global property of a clause, by which activity is transferred from an agent to a patient. Transitive verbs can be classified by the number of objects they require. Verbs that accept only two arguments , a subject and a single direct object , are monotransitive.
Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia vol. Of great importance for the idea presented here is the close semantic rela- tionship between the categories of the passive more exactly: spontaneity and the causative on the one hand and paired verbs on the other.
This has been stres- sed in works by Japanese linguists Takeuchi , ; Okutsu , ; Noda , , 2 as well as in studies discussing transitivity in European languages cf. The pairs of transitive and intransitive verbs to be found in Modern Japa- nese can be grouped into the following morphological types3: a -ar-u : -N-u e. Abe b, The only exceptions are groups v and w, which mark transitivity by means of different conjugations: vocalic ichidan or consonantal godan.
Thus, the number of those types can be reduced to four Abe b, : 1. As in the groups 1 and 2 at least one element of a given pair is marked with a suffix, it allows one to determine faultlessly which element is the transitive one and which is the intransitive one, e. One is even tempted to suggest that the suffixes of transitivity and the morphemes of the passive and the causative are in fact the same.
Taking into account those six bases, eight conjugations are recognised in Old Japanese nine in Classical Japanese : Quadrigrade  yodan , Lower Bigrade [2L] shimo-nidan , Upper Bigrade [2U] kami-nidan , Upper Uni- grade [1U] kami-ichidan , four Irregular Conjugations ra-hen, na-hen, sa-hen, ka- hen , and also Lower Unigrade [1L] shimo-ichidan in Classical Japanese.
Their in- flexion was as follows Yamaguchi et al. The explanation put forward in the present study is based on the supposi- tion that virtually all Proto-Japanese verbs were inflected as Quadrigrade thus, they must have been neutral with respect to their transitivity; such verbs are touched upon by E. Martin , and their passive or causative forms were lexicalised as members of Mod- ern Japanese transitive-intransitive verb pairs.
With this in mind, the three above mentioned difficulties need be solved now. The derivational types are, of course, not mere grammatical formations; these have different shapes, e. The first problem arising here is the question of conjugations. Eight in- flexional types attested in Old Japanese texts can be divided into three classes Abe a, 79 : i. The shorter forms occurred after -a-, the longer ones — after other vowels.
Both passive and causative auxiliaries could also express respect. Aoki , , but seems irrele- vant for the matter under consideration. If the original conjugation — of both verbs and auxiliaries — in Proto- Japanese was truly Quadrigrade, as is assumed here, then the derivational types should present no problems whatsoever as far as conjugation is concerned.
Such a development is further justified by verbs which are attested in Old Japanese as Quadrigrade, e. It was already G. Sansom who entertained the possibility that Proto- Japanese verbs were originally inflected as Quadrigrade. Moreover, it may be worth mentioning that Quadrigrade just as its Modern Japanese descendant was in Old Japanese the most numerous paradigm and constituted together with Lower Bigrade basic conjugations Abe a, 80; b, Given this, the idea seems tempting that Quadrigrade was a starting point for the further develop- ment of the inflexion of many verbs, a development which can in brief be de- scribed as the passage from the alternating type through the hybrid to the suf- fixal one the latter change took place already in the historical period and is known as ichidanka.
Much more frequently, however, the transition to Lower Bigrade or less often Upper Bigrade can be observed; in several cases it affected both elements of a given pair,11 e. Sansom , derives all Old Japanese conjugations from the na- hen type or which he judges less probable Quadrigrade.
As in both conjugations the Imperfect Base has the same form, it is not important for the present study, albeit the latter appears more plausible and would be supported by the explanation put forward here. None the less, the existence of the Upper Unigrade conjugation besides the Quadrigrade must be recognised in Proto-Japanese, for this is the only way to explain the structure of the type p, e. The type f is much the same, but it is formed by means of the suffix -yu, in- stead of -ru, a suffix encountered also in other pairs it is not clear whether the original conjugation of -yu was Quadrigrade too, since all verbs attested with this suffix are inflected as Lower Bigrade Thus, e.
The auxiliaries of the passive and the causative, then, can be said to have been originally conjugated like the vast majority of verbs as Quadri- grade, and to have sprung from the same source as the suffixes forming transi- tive pairs.
The longer forms can be analysed as analogical enlarge- ment of the shorter ones. In the most numerous class of verbs, namely Quadri- grade, before -ru and -su almost always see below -a- can be found, whereas in the remaining conjugations only other vowels occur. It may therefore be ar- gued that due to the influence of the Imperfect Base of Quadrigrade verbs, the suffixes -ru and -su were augmented by the vowel -a- and the resulting hiatus was then eliminated by insertion of the same consonant as appeared in the suffix proper,13 e.
Takeuchi , Sansom , postulates the reverse development. Sansom , ; Lewin , ; Yamaguchi et al. As can be seen from the table, the basic opposition of the auxiliaries hence, the basic opposition of paired verbs was spontaneity vs causativity cf.
Wenck , There is one more problem connected with the origin of derivatives, namely the question of vowels occurring before the suffix -ru or -su types d, e, g, i, n and o. OJ agaru : agu [2L] -o2- e. OJ otu [2U] : oto2su -o- e. OJ tumoru : tumu  -u- e. OJ tuku [2U] : tukusu. Besides those two, several possible explana- tions can be enumerated here, none of them, however, seems more convincing than the others: — vocalic alternations,21 sometimes multistage, e.
Perhaps one must take account of various solutions, depending on the type of a given pair and phonetic features of the original forms, which is however very difficult at the present stage of our knowledge. The presumption that verbs originally lacked formal differentiation with regard to transitivity has already been mentioned above.
At the following stage of development the verbs in some of their uses the rarer ones? If only kogareru and kogasu were given, nothing more could be arrived at than the mere conclusion of the opposition expressed by means of -r- and -s-.
It is, of course, impossible to ascertain whether that was the case in each bipolar pair, although it cannot be ruled out either.
It is quite commonly accepted that this root was originally neutral in re- spect of its transitivity Okutsu , Concomitantly, once bipolarity has been recognised as double derivation from a Quadrigrade verb which in the majority of instances has not come down to us , the origin of the types q, r, s, t and u can be explained much more easily.
As with the category of derivatives, three questions arise at this point, concern- ing the form of the suffixes, the conjugations and the vowels preceding the suf- fixes. The first two issues have already been discussed in detail above and there is no need to raise them again. It may only be added that after derivation some verbs altered their inflexion, but it never involved both elements of a pair, e.
In a few cases the suffix -yu was used instead of -ru, e. The only difficulty lies in the vowels before the suffixes, which are here more diverse than in the derivative types: -a- e.
OJ wataru  : OJ watasu  -o1- e. OJ ko1yu [2L] : OJ ko1su  -o2- e. OJ no2ko2ru  : OJ no2ko2su  -o- e. CJ naforu  : OJ nafosu  -u- e. OJ uturu  : OJ utusu  -e1- e.
OJ kafe1ru  : OJ kafe1su  -e? OJ simeru  : CJ simesu . Yet it must be borne in mind that analogy may relate only to a limited quantity of paired verbs despite its partial productivity in this sphere, operating also in modern times — cf. Shibata- ni, loc. The manner in which the origin of bipolar pairs has just been explained is apt to appear too improbable, because it assumes a severe reduction of verbal root and as a result a substantial increase in the number of homonymous forms.
It does, however, accord with the general schema presented before, although some modifications may prove to be necessary in the future. As for the remaining two types v and w , it is difficult to present any satisfactory explanation, and one is tempted to confine oneself to the statement that in these pairs the opposition is expressed by means of different conjuga- tions: Quadrigrade and Lower Bigrade.
No rule can be formulated which would attribute the transitive or intransitive meaning to a particular inflexional para- digm Syromiatnikov , Okutsu cf. Okutsu compare, e. Martin himself , has come forward with a different expla- nation. He posits for the intransitive Lower Bigrade verbs a suffix -a-? As an alternative, the existence of a 23 Compare, e. This indicates that sometime in the past conjugations were to a larger ex- tent used to mark transitivity, at a later stage however the device was aban- doned.
The last of the categories recognised above, x, comprises irregular pairs, i. Moreo- ver, those pairs which fit into the general schema have been classified as regular, even if only one example could be found for the particular type d, e, g, i, m, o and t.
C o n c l u s i o n s Several implications of a more general nature stem from what has been ar- rived at above. The first is connected with the structure of the verb in Japanese. See also Iwanami …, s. The forms with -t- are touched upon by N. Syromiatnikov , It follows that this is the form which should be presented for any comparative research.
As far as the conjugation of those primitive verbs is concerned, the as- sumption has been made that they were mainly Quadrigrade except for the few Upper Unigrade, e. All the remaining bases cannot be reconstructed in a similar manner but many facts from the historical period of the development of Japanese seem to confirm such an opinion.
In grammar , an intransitive verb does not allow a direct object. This is distinct from a transitive verb , which takes one or more objects. The verb property is called transitivity. Intransitive verbs are often identified as those that can't be followed by who or what. In the following sentences, verbs are used without a direct object :.
The pairs of transitive and intransitive verbs to be found in Modern Japa- The quantitative distribution of the above types based on the list compiled by the.
By now, you might have noticed that there are some pairs of Japanese verbs which look similar, but have slightly different meanings. These pair of verbs are called transitive verbs and intransitive verbs.
Слова Сьюзан Флетчер о том, что ключ находится в Испании, показались ему обнадеживающими. Он бросил быстрый взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему сидела на стуле, обхватив голову руками и целиком уйдя в. Фонтейн не мог понять, в чем дело, но, какими бы ни были причины ее состояния, выяснять это сейчас не было времени. - Нужно решать, сэр! - требовал Джабба. - Немедленно. Фонтейн поднял голову и произнес с ледяным спокойствием: - Вот мое решение. Мы не отключаемся.
Халохот - тот, что слева, - пояснил Смит. - Он мертв? - спросил директор. - Да, сэр. Фонтейн понимал, что сейчас не время для объяснении. Он бросил взгляд на истончающиеся защитные щиты. - Агент Смит, - произнес он медленно и четко, - мне нужен предмет.
Более трех тысяч узлов Независимой цифровой сети связывают весь мир с базой данных агентства. Каждый день военные оценивают моментальные спутниковые снимки всех передвижений по территории потенциальных противников. Инженеры компании Локхид скачивают подробные чертежи новых систем вооружения.
Беккер повернулся и увидел человека в красном одеянии. Тот вскрикнул и испуганно посмотрел на Беккера. Как кот, пойманный с канарейкой в зубах, святой отец вытер губы и безуспешно попытался прикрыть разбившуюся бутылку вина для святого причастия. - Salida! - крикнул Беккер.
Оба поспешили уйти. Камера снова показала Танкадо, его руку, упавшую на бездыханную грудь. Кольца на пальце уже не. ГЛАВА 118 - Это может служить доказательством, - решительно заявил Фонтейн.
Уверяю вас, он стоит этих денег. Тут все без обмана. Он стоит десять раз по двадцать миллионов. - Увы, - сказал Нуматака, которому уже наскучило играть, - мы оба знаем, что Танкадо этого так не оставит.
- Стратмор кивнул в сторону лаборатории систем безопасности.
Я не собираюсь оплачивать твое пристрастие к наркотикам, если речь идет об. - Я хочу вернуться домой, - сказала блондинка. - Не поможете. - Опоздала на самолет.
Быть может, искусственное дыхание делали санитары. - Да нет, конечно! - Клушар почему-то улыбнулся. - Какой смысл хлестать мертвую кобылу. Парень был уже мертв, когда прибыла скорая. Они пощупали пульс и увезли его, оставив меня один на один с этим идиотом-полицейским.
Он посмотрел на приближающуюся фигуру, затем перевел взгляд на кольцо. Из-за чего погибла Меган. Неужели ему предстояло погибнуть по той же причине. Человек неумолимо приближался по крутой дорожке. Вокруг Беккера не было ничего, кроме стен.
Фонтейн пришел к выводу, что Стратмор в полном порядке, что он трудится на сто десять процентов, все так же хитер, умен и в высшей степени лоялен, впрочем - как. Лучшее, что мог сделать директор, - не мешать ему работать и наблюдать за тем, как коммандер творит свое чудо. Стратмор разработал план… и план этот Фонтейн не имел ни малейшего намерения срывать.
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Transitive and intransitive verbs can seem like one of the most difficult parts of learning Japanese.Viv V. 27.03.2021 at 13:02
Worksheet outlining the basics of transitive and intransitive verbs. Includes a list of common verb pairs. transitive_intransitive_ebezpieczni.orgMichela E. 29.03.2021 at 20:12
There are three types of verbs: action verbs, linking verbs, and helping verbs.