The way you declare which elements the styles should apply to. There are different kinds of selectors:. Class : The most commonly used selector. There can be more than 1 element with the same classname. ID : Use this sparingly. You cannot reuse an ID within the same page and used only to identify an element uniquely.
Attribute Selector : If you use any attribute other than class or id to identify an element in a stylesheet, you would be using Attribute Selectors. You can also do basic pattern matching within an attribute selector so if you would like to do basic pattern matching for selectors using class or ID attributes, you would want to use attribute selectors. Pseudo-Classes : Classes that are applied to elements based on information that is not present in the markup, e. Do note that the selectors are parsed from right to left see the demo.
You cannot use section article:first-child to select the first occurrence of article, if the first child of section is h1 and not article. Likewise with the :nth-child, and :last-child pseudo-classes. Pseudo-Elements : Pseudo-elements differ from Pseudo-Classes in that they actually create an element in the document tree. Pseudo-elements are: ::first-line , ::first-letter , ::before , ::after See the demo for how pseudo-elements work. You can have:.
An overall block is given to class selector while id selectors take only a single element differing from other element. A Block is a standalone component that is reusable across projects and acts as a "namespace" for sub components Elements.
Modifiers are used as flags when a Block or Element is in a certain state or is different in structure or style. This technique is used to display the designed page perfectly on every screen size and device. For example: Mobile, Tablet, desktop, laptop etc. You don't need to create a different page for each device. CSS sprites combine multiple images into one single larger image. It is a commonly-used technique for icons.
How to implement it:. Reduce the number of HTTP requests for multiple images only one single request is required per spritesheet. But with HTTP2 , loading multiple images is no longer much of an issue. Advance downloading of assets that won't be downloaded until needed, such as images that only appear upon :hover pseudo-states. Blinking wouldn't be seen. For example, you will put jpg in one sprite in one image.
To display the icon you set height, width and background position. Data URIs - allow you to embed the image data directly into a stylesheet. This avoids additional HTTP requests for images, making it essentially the same thing as a sprite, without the fancy positioning. If a web page has large no. The concept of CSS sprites is used to reduce the loading time for a web page because it combines the various small images into one image.
It reduces the number of HTTP requests and hence the loading time. CSS sprites combine multiple images into one image, limiting the number of HTTP requests a browser has to make, thus improving load times.
This means the cost of opening and closing multiple connections is mitigated, resulting in a better usage of the TCP connection and limits the impact of latency between the client and server. It could then become possible to load tens of images in parallel on the same TCP connection. To utilize a spritesheet in CSS, one would use certain properties, such as background-image , background-position and background-size to ultimately alter the background of an element.
The CSS float property is used to move the image to the right or left along with the texts to be wrapped around it. It doesn't change the property of the elements used before it. You can have float left, right, none or inherit.
The normal flow will wrap around on the right side. If you clear a slide of an element, floating elements will not be accepted on that side. With 'clear' set to 'left', an element will be moved below any floating element on the left side. In CSS3, Transforms matrix, translate, rotate, scale etc. The mission of the W3C is to lead the Web to its full potential by developing relevant protocols and guidelines.
This is achieved primarily by creating and publishing Web standards. By adopting the Web standards created by the W3C, hardware manufacturers and software developers can ensure their equipment and programs work with the latest Web technologies. When browsers conform to the W3C standards, it also helps Web pages appear consistent across different browsers. It will not affect the layout of the document nor occupy space. The z-index helps specify the stack order of positioned elements that may overlap one another.
The z-index default value is zero, and can take on either a positive or negative number. It is a pre-planned libraries, which allows easier and more standards-compliant webpage styling, using CSS language. Setting position: relative; on an element and no other positioning attributes, it will no effect on it's positioning. It allows the use of z-index on the element and it limits the scope of absolutely positioned child elements.
Any child element will be absolutely positioned within that block. The only reason you would ever set an element to position: static is to forcefully-remove some positioning that got applied to an element outside of your control. The element is treated as relative positioned until it crosses a specified threshold, at which point it is treated as fixed positioned. Elements with display: inline-block are like display: inline elements , but they can have a width and a height.
That means that you can use an inline-block element as a block while flowing it within text or other elements. However, this concept is tricky. The common practice is to set default body font-size to Hence, you have to set font-size of the body to a reasonable size. Padding A transparent area surrounding the content i.
Margin A transparent area surrounding the border i. To create a zebra-striped table, use the nth-child selector and add a background-color to all even or odd table rows:. There are many CSS preprocessors to choose from, however most CSS preprocessors will add some features that don't exist in pure CSS, such as mixin, nesting selector, inheritance selector, and so on. These features make the CSS structure more readable and easier to maintain.
Ability to select only the plugins you need for a particular project. Writing plain CSS and applying the plugin to output necessary syntax that suits your needs — which in turn allows for the ability to remove or update that plugin if at any time it is not useful anymore. Resetting - Resetting is meant to strip all default browser styling on elements. For e. You will have to redeclare styling for common typographic elements.
Normalizing - Normalizing preserves useful default styles rather than "unstyling" everything. It also corrects bugs for common browser dependencies. Float is a CSS positioning property. Floated elements remain a part of the flow of the page, and will affect the positioning of other elements e. If a parent element contains nothing but floated elements, its height will be collapsed to nothing.
It can be fixed by clearing the float after the floated elements in the container but before the close of the container. Rather than setting the overflow on the parent, you apply an additional class clearfix to it. Then apply this CSS:. Alternatively, give overflow: auto or overflow: hidden property to the parent element which will establish a new block formatting context inside the children and it will expand to contain its children.
Floats, absolutely positioned elements, inline-blocks , table-cells , table-caption s, and elements with overflow other than visible except when that value has been propagated to the viewport establish new block formatting contexts. In a BFC, each box's left outer edge touches the left edge of the containing block for right-to-left formatting, right edges touch.
Vertical margins between adjacent block-level boxes in a BFC collapse. Read more on collapsing margins. In large projects, I would write a utility. Even if WAI-ARIA is the ideal solution, I would go with the absolute positioning approach, as it has the least caveats, works for most elements and it's an easy technique. I like the float -based grid system because it still has the most browser support among the alternative existing systems flex, grid.
It has been used in Bootstrap for years and has been proven to work. Most SVG you'll find around the web use inline CSS, but there are advantages and disadvantages associated with each type.
Basic coloring can be done by setting two attributes on the node: fill and stroke. Remove and reduce colors to grayscale and black and whites if possible. Add styling if you want the URLs to print out:. Use font-face and define font-family for different font-weight s. This part is related to the above about writing efficient CSS.
Browsers match selectors from rightmost key selector to left. Browsers filter out elements in the DOM according to the key selector and traverse up its parent elements to determine matches.
Every business is trying to make websites that are user engaging. An attractive website increases the engagement time as the customer spends some time exploring it. Thus, every company is hiring developers who can make that happen. If you are a CSS aspirant is applying for the post of CSS developer, make sure you go through the smart compilation of these css interview questions that can help you achieve your dream job. It is basically used to simplify the process and make the web page look presentable. Margin : transparent area outside border Border : the padding and content option with a border around it is shown. Padding : Space is around content.
Prepare well for your job interview by using these questions and answers. Defines content tangentially related to the content surrounding it, such as related reading links and glossaries, which may or not be nested within an article element. An input tag can take some attributes based on the requirement. The word MathML Mathematical Markup Language is a markup language, that is used to show the scientific and mathematical expression on the web. And it is a form of XML to describe the Math notation. HTML5 supports animation, drawing, audio, video, etc and it easily embeds a video on the web page. It does not require any additional software like Flash for watching videos.
It is a language of World Wide Web. It is a standard text formatting language which is used to create and display pages on the Web. It makes the text more interactive and dynamic. It can turn text into images, tables, links. More details. HTML tags are composed of three things: an opening tag, content and ending tag. Some tags are unclosed tags.
Nick Mertens. Looking for more intervew prep? Check out our guides on CSS interview questions and Python interview questions.
Like pauline, you may be in the equivalent spot freaking close to how to answer the frightening interview question. Look at their web site. The point is that there is no set magic list of documents that one necessarily for a wedlock interview. Any time overwhelming task should be preferred through asynchronously.
Она перечитала его послание. СЕЙЧАС ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА - Правда? - спросила. - Какая правда. Стратмор тяжело дышал. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Инженеры компании Локхид скачивают подробные чертежи новых систем вооружения. Оперативные агенты сообщают последние данные о ходе выполнения поставленных перед ними задач. Банк данных АНБ - это основа основ тысяч правительственных операций.
У нас нет гарантий, что Дэвид найдет вторую копию. Если по какой-то случайности кольцо попадет не в те руки, я бы предпочел, чтобы мы уже внесли нужные изменения в алгоритм. Тогда, кто бы ни стал обладателем ключа, он скачает себе нашу версию алгоритма. - Стратмор помахал оружием и встал. - Нужно найти ключ Хейла.
Над их головами куполом раскинулось усыпанное звездами небо. Такие же звезды, наверное, видит сейчас Дэвид в небе над Севильей, подумала. Подойдя к тяжелой стеклянной двери, Стратмор еле слышно чертыхнулся. Кнопочная панель Третьего узла погасла, двери были закрыты. - Черт возьми.
Бринкерхофф выдавил из себя нечто невразумительное. Мидж нажала несколько клавиш. - Я просматриваю регистратор лифта Стратмора. - Мидж посмотрела в монитор и постучала костяшками пальцев по столу. - Он здесь, - сказала она как о чем-то само собой разумеющемся.
Пока этого, по-видимому, не случилось: цифра 16 в окне отсчета часов заставила бы его завопить от изумления. Сьюзан допивала уже третью чашку чая, когда это наконец произошло: компьютер пискнул. Пульс ее участился.
Все зависит оттого, что выбрал Танкадо. Чем больше это число, тем труднее его найти. - Оно будет громадным, - застонал Джабба.