File Name: organizations and organizing rational natural and open systems perspectives .zip
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Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Sirajul Haq. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Impact Factor 3. Sirajul Haque-Associate Professor Abstract In the modern society, it is difficult to imagine life without organization. Today, we are living in a global village and many organizations across the globe are involved in producing products and delivering services required by the societies.
Organization has become vital to the very fabric of the modern society. Thus the organizations can be defined as platform where the people come together to perform their assigned to fulfill common goals. The organizations are established to bring people together to accomplish collective goals.
Organizational theories have been developed as a result of systematic study of organizations. It has general application to all type of organizations. It provides a way of thinking about organizations and way of managing organizations. Organization theory deals primarily with organization level phenomenon such as organizational change and growth, effective planning, design, development, politics, culture and structure. Organizations are important part of the study and considered vital instruments for accomplishing collective goals in modern societies In order to understand as to how to structure and designed the organization to accomplish collective goals, it is very important to study the various perspectives on organization.
Richard Scott in his book has described three perspectives on organization i. The research study has discussed the key perspectives and presented a comparative analysis of these three perspectives on organization and concludes with the applications of these perspectives in current scenario of organizations.
Romans and Egyptians had built huge organizations to accomplish their goals. Chines had given us first principle of strategy and Democracy first flourished in Greece and study of organization history tells us that various civilizations have developed different forms of organization.. Organization theories have been developed through systematic study of organizations, therefore, it can be applied to all types of organizations.
It provides a way of thinking about organizations and managing organizations. Theory is consisting of principles that describes the relationships observed in any phenomenon and to provide a description as well as explanation of Phenomenon.
The theory can help us in understanding, what is the organization? How organization behave in the certain environment and how they may behave in different set of circumstances. Primarily, there are two way through which systematic knowledge about the organization can be generalized.
First way is the experimental method and it goes through three steps. In first step; organizational phenomenon can be experienced by working in an ongoing organization. In second step; reflect those experiences and in third step, making some systematic sense in coherent of reflection and conceptualize the framework. Pugh, The organizational field has been borrowed from a variety of disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and mathematics and computer science and there are diverse perspectives of the organization from each disciplines.
There were lot of theories but there was no unifying framework. During s, an Open system was suggested as possible integrating framework and in this context, Nath has pointed out that how an open system framework for various theories existed that time.
Later in , scholars such as Kats also proposed Open system framework. One of the basic tenet of the open system theory is the interaction among the subsystems of the organization and between the organization and its environment are more important. This study has focused its study on investigating the key perspectives on organization i.
The organizations are prevalent in every arena of our social life. The Rational. Natural and Open Systems have defined organization in various perspectives. The rational perspective of organization emphasize on the distinctive features of organization which helps to distinguish organization from related social forms. The high goal specicifity and high formalizations are the important elements of this perspective of organization.
The Natural System perspectives of organization view organization as an organic system imbued with strong drive to survive, maintain as a system. The development of formal structure and distinction of culture are regarded as important part of this system perspective. The Open System perspective view organization as a sytem that is open to the external environment and dependent on flows of resoruces.
The individuals have different interests and they value various inducements. They join and leave organization, depeneded on the bargains they can strike on. In this this perspective, the structure of coalition, its outcomes are strongly influenced by the environmental factors.
Scott, The rational, natural, and open system perspectives are presenting three diverse views of organizations. These three perspectives on organizations have been presented to analyze and understand the nature of organization. Bertallanffy is known as pioneer of the General System Theory. He defined the system as composed of set of elements standing in interaction. If the international of elements is internal then that is closed system.
If the interaction is both internal and external elements of the environment then that is open system. The classical and human relations theories of organizations were based on the concept of internal regularity. Concern with whole organization, 2. Concern with its relation to environment, 3. Concern with the dynamics of organizational life and its development. In this perspective, the organizations are considered as social organization established by individuals to accomplish specified goals through collaborative efforts Scott, The key characteristics of rational system are goal specification, formal structure and Effectiveness and Efficiency.
Each of these characteristics makes an important contribution in the formation of organization. In terms of rational perspective, the behavior of organization is viewed as actions performed by purposeful and coordinated managers. The three main characteristics of this perspective are presented in the following figure. The goals guide the decisions as to how organization structure is designed. The goals specify the task to be performed, what personnel to be employed, how resources should be allocated amongst the personnel Scott, It is considered one of most important element in the rational system of organization and it establishes visible structure of relationships amongst the set of roles that governs the behavior of the system.
The roles and relations in the formal structure are well prescribed independently along-with occupying positions in the organization Scott, The set of terms also occurs in this perspective that indicates the intellectual limitations of the individual decision maker. The terms such as constraints, authority, rules, directives, jurisdiction, performance, and co-ordination imply that the rationality behavior within organization takes place within clearly specified limits Scott, In this perspective, the behavior of participants is guided by their own interests and behavior Scott, There are two major differences between rational and natural systems.
One is the importance of goal complexity and other is informal structures. There are three key characteristics of the natural systems. In this perspective of organization, the organization goals and their relations to the behavior of participants are much more problematic.
The first goal complexity is that the real goals are different than the professed ones. There is a frequent disparity between the stated goals and real goals of the organization. The informal structures of the organization depends on the characteristics of the specific participant which can be distinguished from formal basis.
The participants enter the organization with shaped ideas, expectations and bring different values, interests and abilities along-with. The participants within formal organization generate informal norms and behavior patterns such as status and power system, communication networks, sociometric structure and working environment Scott, Functional Analysis.
The functional analysis is served as essential tool for the work of natural system analyst. This approach assumes that organization as a social unit has certain needs to be fulfilled for its survival in its present form. The organization are analyzed in terms of need they meet and function they perform for making ensure the survival of system Scott, The open system, views organizations as a system in which participants with various interests have partnership to serve their interests.
The organization as a system is surrounded by the environment Scott, In the open system perspective, the organization and environment are interdependent on each other. According to this perspective, an Organization as a open systems can possesses the capability to survive in the environment by managing their resources received from the environment. The environment is perceived as ultimate source of material, energy and information which are vital to the continuation of system.
The parts of the organizations are loosely coupled and have the capability of taking semi-autonomous action. The coordination and control becomes problematic, if any individual and subgroup form and leave coalitions. There is no line of boundary in subsystems of the organization Scott, The interdependencies and connection between subsystems embeds the survival capability to the entire system of the organization Scott, The Open system perspectives see organizations both as hierarchical and loosely coupled systems.
Scott, Conclusion It is concluded from the analysis of three perspectives on organization that each perspective view organization as a distinct entity in the environment. The rational system view the organization as closed system and it is not affected by the external environment. In contract to that natural system view the organization as a social system in which required needs are fulfilled for its survival.
Open. Closeed Natural Rational. W. Richard Scott. Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open and a ”natural” system perspective – that went far to account for much of who sets organizational goals, power avoids many.
During the past 60 years, organizational theorists and management scholars have developed a comprehensive line of thinking with respect to organizational assessment that serves to inform and be informed by the evaluation discipline. However, the purpose of the organization and the relationship between the motivations of the participants to work in the organization to achieve the goals bring about different perspectives. From the open systems perspective, "Organizations are congeries of interdependent flows and activities linking shifting coalitions of participants embedded in wider material-resource and institutional environments" Scott Natural and Open Systems have defined organization in various perspectives.
December 28, by drcedricalford. However, the purpose of the organization and the relationship between the motivations of the participants to work in the organization to achieve the goals bring about different perspectives. In the rational system, much emphasis is placed on the structure of the organization as well as the belief that participants join the organization because they are committed to helping the organization reach their goals.
Type IV: Open Natural Systems Models: Recently the open rational models that have dominated since the 60's are being supplanted by open natural theories.