File Name: governor general and viceroy of india in gujarati.zip
With the selfless guidance and statesmanship of the legal profession, the Indian national movement gained participation and its impact reached far beyond immediate political consequences.
The movement that began in as a sepoy mutiny took the shape of a nationwide struggle for Independence from the British Raj. It incorporated various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both non-violent and militant philosophies. After the First war of Independence in and its aftermath, the formation of Indian National Congress in marked the beginning of a new era in the national movement.
The era was of moderates like Dadabhai Naoroji and Sundernath Bannerjee while Madan Mohan Malviya and Motilal Nehru, amongst others, were important moderate leaders who were lawyers by profession. The moderates believed in the system of constitutionalism. But none of this made any substantive impact. In , the British announced the partition of Bengal on communal lines.
This was opposed by the Congress and the nationalist leaders who adopted policies like Swadeshi wherein they boycotted British goods and promoted Indian goods. This created a faction in the Congress and brought to light the underlying forces of antagonism that was prevalent in the Indian National Congress due to the opposite ideologies of Moderates and emerging group of the extremists.
Tilak began a new phase of more radical thought within the organization. He put forth new ideas and methods of opposing the imperialist rule and advocated stronger actions like the boycott of foreign goods and the policy of swadeshi self reliance.
He did not believe that the British rule was beneficial and instead felt that their rule was extremely harmful. After the partition of Bengal he emerged as an important leader of the extremist faction. In the session he was able to get his ideas of swaraj, swadeshi and boycott adopted despite the opposition of the moderates. After the split of the Indian National Congress in , the British began cracking down on extremist leaders.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was imprisoned and deported to Mandalay for six years. He was released in and started the home rule league two years later in , which inspired the youth to fight against the foreign occupation of the country. Sir Valentine Chirol rightly described him as one of the most dangerous pioneers of disaffection and truly the father of Indian unrest. Other eminent lawyers who supported the extremist ideology were C.
Rajagopalachari and Lala Lajpat Rai. He also went to Geneva to attend the eighth International Labour Conference in as a representative of Indian labour. His journals Bande Mataram and People, contained his inspiring speeches to end oppression by the foreign rulers. A cycle of violence and repression had ensued in some parts of the country as a result of the partition of Bengal, and Alipore Bomb Case was a famous controversy which arose at that time.
Aurobindo Ghosh and 37 other revolutionaries were suspected to have been engaged in illegal activities and sedition and were arrested. However, the eminent lawyer CR Das came to the rescue, who through his brilliant handling of the case got Aurobindo and many others was acquitted.
This case brought Das to the forefront professionally and politically. Also called Deshbandhu, CR Das, used his legal knowledge to save many other nationalists and revolutionaries from the clutches of the British. He was the defence counsel in the Dacca Conspiracy Case as well and was famed for his handling of both civil and criminal law. Meanwhile, in , the British Government announced certain reforms in the structure of Government in India, known as Morley-Minto Reforms.
But these reforms came as a disappointment as they did not mark any advance towards the establishment of a representative Government. The provision of special representation of the Muslims was seen as a threat to the Hindu-Muslim unity on which the strength of the National Movement rested. Thus these reforms were vehemently opposed by all the nationalists. The disgust with the reforms announced in led to the intensification of the struggle for Swaraj. While, on one side, the extremists waged a virtual war against the British, on the other side, the revolutionaries stepped up their violent activities.
There was a widespread unrest in the country. To add to the already growing discontent among the people, Rowlatt Act was passed in , which empowered the Government to put people in jail without trial. This caused widespread indignation, led to massive demonstration and hartals.
Lawyer cum nationalist, Saifuddin Kitchlew was one of the leaders who protested against this legislation. Kithclew was also a founding leader of the Naujawan Bharat Sabha Indian Youth Congress , which rallied hundreds of thousands of students and young Indians to nationalist causes.
He was also among the principal founders of Jamia Millia Islamia. Mahatma Gandhi. This also marked the entrance of Mahatma Gandhi in the mainstream Indian politics. Gandhi, also a lawyer by profession, had just returned from South Africa, where he had carried out a successful Satyagraha against the racial discrimination and for civil liberties of the people.
Meanwhile, Gandhi had made his mark in India already by his success in Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha. Gandhi led organized protests and strikes against the landlords who, with the guidance of the British government, signed an agreement granting the poor farmers of the region more compensation and control over farming, and cancellation of revenue hikes and its collection until the famine ended.
In Kheda, Sardar Patel, a lawyer by profession, represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners. Patel subsequently organised the peasants of Kheda, Borsad, and Bardoli in Gujarat in non-violent civil disobedience against oppressive policies imposed by the British Raj; in this role, he became one of the most influential leaders in Gujarat. Rajendra Prasad, an eminent lawyer and the first President of India, was also involved with Gandhi in the Champaran movement.
Bhulabhai Desai, another lawyer and a politician, represented the farmers of Gujarat in the inquiry by the British Government following the Bardoli Satyagraha in Most lawyers gave their time freely, at the cost of their own legal practice, to the defense of scores of helpless victims of Martial Law implemented by the British, who had been condemned to the gallows or sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. There was a shift in ideology as well, from moderate to a more radical one. In December , Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress.
Under his leadership, the Congress was reorganized with a new constitution, with the goal of Swaraj. Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee. Thus congress, an elitist institution was now open to masses by Gandhi. Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi homespun cloth be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weed out the unwilling and ambitious, and to include women in the movement at a time when many thought that such activities were not respectable activities for women.
In addition to boycotting British products, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts, to resign from government employment, and to forsake British titles and honours. Non cooperation Movement also saw the involvement of Jawaharlal Nehru who plunged himself into the Indian freedom struggle during this time.
A London educated lawyer, Nehru had spent his time touring the nation and spreading Gandhian ideas and making himself acquainted with the problems of the common people. Patel toured the state to recruit more than , members and raise over Rs. He worked extensively in the following years in Gujarat against alcoholism, untouchability and caste discrimination, as well as for the empowerment of women. It was initially known as the Congress-Swaraj-Khilafat Party.
The programme was later confirmed at the Cocanada Session. From onwards it was recognised by the Congress as its political wing. Ansari, the Congress President, and a Committee, including Tej Bahadur Sapru, an eminent lawyer and headed by Motital Nehru, was appointed to determine the principles of a constitution for free India. The report of the Committee — the Nehru Report as it came to be called — attempted a solution of the communal problem which unfortunately failed to receive the support of a vocal section of Muslim opinion led by the Aga Khan and Jinnah.
The Nehru Report, representing as it did the highest common denominator among a number of heterogeneous Parties was based on the assumption that the new Indian Constitution would be based on Dominion Status.
Calcutta Congress December over which Motilal presided was the scene of a head-on clash between those who were prepared to accept Dominion Status and those who would have nothing short of complete independence. A split was averted by a via media proposed by Gandhi-ji, according to which if Britain did not concede Dominion Status within a year, the Congress was to demand complete independence and to fight for it, if necessary, by launching civil disobedience. Gandhi had not only moderated the views of younger men like Subhash Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru, who sought a demand for immediate independence, but also reduced his own call to a one year wait, instead of two.
The British did not respond. The aim of this movement was a complete disobedience of the orders of the British Government. During the same time, revolutionaries Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were arrested on the charges of throwing a bomb in the Central Assembly Hall. Asaf Ali, a freedom fighter and a prominent lawyer, defended the revolutionaries but they were hanged on March 23, The government, represented by Lord Edward Irwin, decided to negotiate with Gandhi after the civil disobedience movement.
The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. Patel used his position as Congress president in organising the return of confiscated lands to farmers in Gujarat. The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists, because it focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than on a transfer of power.
In , another round table conference was organized and Ambedkar, an eminent lawyer and a Dalit leader was invited to attend the same. Ambedkar had been working for the social upliftment of the Dalits and lower caste people and was opposed to the Hindu idea of casteism and social discrimination.
Through his campaigning, the government granted untouchables separate electorates under the new constitution. In protest Gandhi began a fast-unto-death while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of Pune in against the separate electorate for untouchables only.
This was the start of a new campaign by Gandhi to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he named Harijans, the children of God. On 8 May , Gandhi began a day fast of self-purification to help the Harijan movement.
Gandhi promised to extend his support to the British in the war in return of the freedom, while Subhash Chandra Bose advocated taking advantage of the situation to expel the British Raj by any means necessary.
This caused a fiction between the two and led to Bose resigning from INC. Leaders like Gobind Bhallabh Pant, who was also a lawyer by profession, acted as the tiebreaker between them. Gandhi then declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom, while that freedom was denied to India itself. The movement was followed, nonetheless, by large-scale violence directed at railway stations, telegraph offices, government buildings, and other emblems and institutions of colonial rule.
There were widespread acts of sabotage, and the government held Gandhi responsible for these acts of violence. All the prominent leaders were arrested, the Congress was banned and the police and army were brought out to suppress the movement. The court-martial hearing began in October at the Red Fort. Bhulabhai was the leading counsel for the defense. Afsal Ali also came to be the convenor of the INA defence team. The successful release of all 3 officers was a great achievement on the part of the Indain lawyers.
Rajendra Prasad was elected its President. Ambedkar won great praise from his colleagues and contemporary observers for his drafting work.
Download this as PDF. The Governors-General were originally the head of the British administration in India during Colonial rule. The Regulating Act, however, granted them additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defence. While the Governor-General thus became the controller of foreign policy in India, he was not the explicit head of British India. Upon independence in August , the title of Viceroys of India was abolished. The representative of the British Sovereign became known once again as the Governor-General. Rajagopalachari became the only Indian Governor-General.
Its provisions called for the liquidation of the British East India Company who had up to this point been ruling British India under the auspices of Parliament and the transference of its functions to the British Crown. However, before this bill was to be passed, Palmerston was forced to resign on another issue. Later Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby who would later become the first Secretary of State for India , introduced another bill which was originally titled as "An Act for the Better Governance of India" and it was passed on 2 August This act provided that India was to be governed directly and in the name of the Crown. The Act was followed a few months later by Queen Victoria's proclamation to the "Princes, Chiefs, and People of India", which, among other things, stated, "We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our Indian territories by the same obligation of duty which bind us to all our other subjects. The Act ushered in a new period of Indian history, bringing about the end of Company rule in India.
The term derives from the Latin prefix vice- , meaning "in the place of" and the French word roy , meaning "king". The adjective form is viceregal ,  less often viceroyal. The term has occasionally been applied to the governors-general of the Commonwealth realms , who are viceregal representatives of the monarch. Viceroy is a form of royal appointment rather than noble rank. The title was originally used by the Crown of Aragon , where, beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica.
With the selfless guidance and statesmanship of the legal profession, the Indian national movement gained participation and its impact reached far beyond immediate political consequences. The movement that began in as a sepoy mutiny took the shape of a nationwide struggle for Independence from the British Raj. It incorporated various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both non-violent and militant philosophies. After the First war of Independence in and its aftermath, the formation of Indian National Congress in marked the beginning of a new era in the national movement. The era was of moderates like Dadabhai Naoroji and Sundernath Bannerjee while Madan Mohan Malviya and Motilal Nehru, amongst others, were important moderate leaders who were lawyers by profession.
The evolution of public health in British India and the history of disease prevention in that part of world in the 19 th and early 20 th century provides a valuable insight into the period that witnessed the development of new trends in medical systems and a transition from surveys to microscopic studies in medicine. It harbors the earliest laboratory works and groundbreaking achievements in microbiology and immunology. The advent of infectious diseases and tropical medicine was a direct consequence of colonialism. The history of diseases and their prevention in the colonial context traces back the epidemiology of infectious diseases, many of which are still prevalent in third world countries. It reveals the development of surveillance systems and the response to epidemics by the imperial government.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this word was rarely heard outside the plains of north India until the late 18th century, when it suddenly became a common term across Britain. To understand how and why it took root and flourished in so distant a landscape, one need only visit Powis Castle.
One of our mentor will revert to you within 48 hours. Meanwhile you can Enjoy the Free Study Material. General Awareness is considered an integral part of the competitive exams. From history to polity, facts regarding General Science, Physics, Biology, our constitution, economy, banks and almost everything. Being an SSC exam or Railway exam appearing aspirant, this list will help you to know the complete details of the Governor General and Viceroy of India from the year to It also covers the important achievements and events that took place during their time.
Until the 18th century, Bombay consisted of seven islands separated by shallow sea. These seven islands were part of a larger archipelago in the Arabian sea, off the western coast of India. The date of city's founding is unclear—historians trace back urban settlement to the late 17th century after the British secured the seven islands from the Portuguese to establish a secure base in the region.
Фонд постоянно выступал против того, что именовалось им оруэлловскими средствами подслушивания, имеющимися в распоряжении правительственных агентств, прежде всего АНБ. Этот фонд был для Стратмора постоянной головной болью. - Не вижу ничего нового, - сказала Сьюзан. - В чем же чрезвычайность ситуации, из-за которой вы вытащили меня из ванной. Какое-то время Стратмор задумчиво нажимал на клавиши мышки, вмонтированной в столешницу письменного стола.
Сьюзан повернулась и направилась к двери, но на полпути оглянулась. - Коммандер, - сказала. - Это еще не конец. Мы еще не проиграли.