File Name: reflect and relate an introduction to interpersonal communication .zip
How did humans develop the ability to communicate? Are humans the only creatures on earth that communicate?
The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. Interpersonal relationships vary in their degree of intimacy or self-disclosure, but also in their duration, in their reciprocity and in their power distribution, to name only a few dimensions. The context can vary from family or kinship relations, friendship , marriage , relations with associates, work , clubs , neighborhoods , and places of worship.
The self is an evolving composite of self-awareness, self-concept, and self-esteem. One way we develop a sense of self is by monitoring our own behaviors and forming impressions of who we are from such observations. A greater sense of self develops as we consider our behavior relative to the behavior of others, a process known as social comparison.
You can greatly enhance your self-awareness and, ultimately, your interpersonal communication skills by practicing critical self-reflection. Learn to ask five questions about your communication behavior: a.
What am I thinking and feeling? Why am I thinking and feeling this way? How am I communicating? How are my thoughts and feelings affecting my communication? How can I improve my thoughts, feelings, and communication? The second component of self is your self-concept, your overall perception of who you are.
One of the biggest influences on your self-concept is how you think others see you. Cooley referred to this phenomenon as the looking-glass self. For example, do you think others see you as attractive? Self-concept clarity is the degree to which you have a clearly defined, consistent, and enduring sense of self. Our self-concept may lead us to make self-fulfilling prophecies, predictions about future outcomes that cause us to behave in ways that ensure the interaction unfolds as we predicted.
Some self-fulfilling prophecies set positive events in motion, while others set negative events in motion. The third component of self is self-esteem, the overall value we assign to ourselves. This evaluation can be positive or negative. Your self-esteem strongly shapes your interpersonal communication, relationships, and physical and mental health. Self-discrepancy theory suggests that your self-esteem is determined by how you think about yourself along the lines of two mental standards.
The first is your ideal self, comprising the characteristics you want to possess. The second is your ought self, the person others i. Self-discrepancy theory maintains that self-esteem improves as we reduce discrepancies between our ideal and ought selves. Standards informing our ideal and ought selves are shaped by the media. Although the media present digitally enhanced images, we are prone to compare ourselves with such images.
The internalization of such standards can contribute to low self-esteem. Your self-esteem can start to improve only when you reduce discrepancies between your ideal and ought selves. Methods of achieving this goal include the following: a. Assessing your self-concept b. Analyzing your ideal self c. Revisiting and redefining your standards e. Creating an action plan for resolving any self-discrepancies II. Gender, family experiences, and cultural factors are three outside sources that also shape our sense of self.
Gender is the composite of social, psychological, and cultural attributes that characterize us as male or female. Gender differs from biological sex, the physical characteristics with which we are born, in that gender is largely learned. Boys are usually taught masculine behaviors e. Early family experiences affect how we come to see ourselves and shape our beliefs regarding the functions, rewards, and dependability of interpersonal relationships. These beliefs help shape two dimensions of our thoughts, feelings, and behavior: attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance.
Attachment anxiety is the degree to which a person fears rejection by relationship partners. Attachment avoidance is the degree to which someone desires close interpersonal ties. Four attachment styles derive from these two dimensions. Individuals with secure attachment have low anxiety and avoidance regarding relationships with others, seek closeness, and have confidence in their abilities to handle problems. People with preoccupied attachment are high in anxiety and low in avoidance.
They desire closeness but are plagued with fear of rejection. They may use sexual contact to satisfy their need to feel loved. People with dismissive attachment have low anxiety but high avoidance. They view close relationships as unimportant. Individuals with fearful attachment are high in both attachment anxiety and avoidance. They avoid relationships because they fear closeness will only result.
They may develop a relationship only if there is a guarantee that their partners must rely on them; but even then, they will still harbor doubts. Culture is the third outside source of self. Culture is an established, coherent set of beliefs, attitudes, values, and practices shared by a large group of people. Culture may include nationality as well as ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, physical and mental ability levels, and even age.
Most of us belong to more than one culture, and this may lead to internal conflict. Whenever we communicate with others, we present our self to them. Sometimes we present a public self that mirrors our private self, and sometimes we do not.
Your public self—your face—is how you want others to see and know you. Masks can be subtle, dramatic, or crafted to inflate our abilities. We often form a strong emotional attachment to our face because it represents the person we most want others to see. This is known as embarrassment. You can maintain your face by engaging in communication and behaviors that mesh with the knowledge that others already have about you.
You can remedy an embarrassing situation restore your face by acknowledging that the event happened, accepting responsibility for your actions, and apologizing, if necessary. How you present your self online is very important in our technology-dominated world.
This includes everything from what you say online to the images you post and even what others say about you. Presenting yourself online provides unique benefits and challenges. A major benefit of online interaction is the ability to control the information you share with others.
For example, many people present themselves in ways that amplify positive personality characteristics such as warmth and friendliness. A drawback is that online presentation makes it easier to deceive—to represent your self differently from who you actually are. You can improve your online self-presentation in several ways: a. Select an appropriate screen name.
Make wise choices about the words and images you use. Beware of allowing content on your Web page that diminishes your self-image. Routinely search for what others are posting online about you. Modify your online self-presentation if it fails the interview test. Developing strong relationships is dependent on making our selves known to others.
Exposing yourself to others can make you feel vulnerable, provoking uneasiness between how much to reveal versus how much to veil. Social penetration theory explains how we reveal our self in layers. The social penetration model draws an analogy between the self and an onion. At the outermost, peripheral layers of self are demographic characteristics such as birthplace, age, gender, and ethnicity.
At the intermediate layers reside attitudes and opinions. The deepest levels are the central layers, which include core characteristics such as self-awareness; self-concept; self-esteem; and personal values, traits, and fears. You develop closer relationships by revealing more personal aspects of your self to others. Breadth is the number of different aspects of self each partner reveals. The speed with which people grant another access to the broader and deeper aspects of their selves depends on a variety of factors.
Another means of thinking about how we manage revealing ourselves in relationships is the Johari Window, which suggests that some aspects, or quadrants, of our selves are open to self-reflection and sharing with other people, while others remain hidden—both to ourselves and to others. During the early stages of a relationship our hidden area is relatively large compared with the public area.
We reveal information that was previously hidden in order to become better acquainted with others. Yet the unknown and blind areas remain fairly stable. To improve ourselves, we must learn about our blind area and then change the aspects within it that contribute to ineffective communication and relationship challenges. Revealing private information about your self to others is known as self-disclosure. According to the interpersonal process model of intimacy, the closeness we feel toward others in our relationships is created through two things: self-disclosure and responsiveness of listeners.
Relationships are less intimate and can be undermined by listeners who are nonsupportive in response to disclosures, or people disclose information that is perceived as problematic. Research studies suggest five important facts regarding self-disclosure: a. In any culture, people vary widely in the degree to which they self-disclose. People across cultures differ in their self-disclosure. People disclose more quickly, broadly, and deeply when interacting online than when interacting face-to-face.
Self-disclosure appears to promote mental health and relieve stress. Contrary to stereotypes, both men and women disclose deeply and broadly.
Interpersonal Skills:. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. Interpersonal communication is the process by which people exchange information, feelings, and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages: it is face-to-face communication. Interpersonal communication is not just about what is actually said - the language used - but how it is said and the non-verbal messages sent through tone of voice, facial expressions, gestures and body language. When two or more people are in the same place and are aware of each other's presence, then communication is taking place, no matter how subtle or unintentional. Although no communication may be intended, people receive messages through such forms of non-verbal behaviour.
The self is an evolving composite of self-awareness, self-concept, and self-esteem. One way we develop a sense of self is by monitoring our own behaviors and forming impressions of who we are from such observations. A greater sense of self develops as we consider our behavior relative to the behavior of others, a process known as social comparison. You can greatly enhance your self-awareness and, ultimately, your interpersonal communication skills by practicing critical self-reflection. Learn to ask five questions about your communication behavior: a. What am I thinking and feeling?
For this edition, McCornack teams up with the ideal co-author—Professor Kelly Morrison of University of Alabama at Birmingham— whose research and teaching interests include interpersonal, gender, health, deception, and instructional communication. Kelly and Steve have team-taught Interpersonal Communication for more than twenty-five years, winning numerous teaching awards together. They are also life partners. Kelly and Steve include an important new chapter on gender communication Chapter 6 , which discusses what gender is, how we "do" gender, and how the societal understanding of gender is evolving. Additionally, their completely revised culture chapter Chapter 5 emphasizes the importance of embracing difference while dismantling cultural divisions.
Interpersonal Skills:. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. Interpersonal skills are the skills we use every day when we communicate and interact with other people, both individually and in groups. They include a wide range of skills, but particularly communication skills such as listening and effective speaking.
Published by McGraw-Hill, an imprint of … Luckily, these skills can be practiced and improved upon. Interpersonal communication strongly depends on the environment around which the conversation is taking place and the parties communicating. Demonstrate interpersonal skills in areas such as listening, ethics, verbal and nonverbal communication, among others within personal and professional relationships 4.
Reflect & Relate: An Introduction to Interpersonal Communication 4th Edition pdf. Close.
For this edition, McCornack teams up with the ideal co-author--Professor Kelly Morrison of University of Alabama at Birmingham-- whose research and teaching interests include interpersonal, gender, health, deception, and instructional communication. Kelly and Steve have team-taught Interpersonal Communication for more than twenty-five years, winning numerous teaching awards together. They are also life partners.
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