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Library and information science LIS sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences   is a branch academic disciplines that deal generally with organization, access, and collection of information, whether in physical for example, art or digital form. In the last part of the s, schools of librarianship , which generally developed from professional training programs not academic disciplines to university institutions during the second half of the 20th century, began to add the term "information science" to their names.
The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in Although there are exceptions, similar developments have taken place in other parts of the world. In spite of various trends to merge the two fields, some consider the two original disciplines, library science and information science , to be separate. Tefko Saracevic , p. The common ground between library science and information science, which is a strong one, is in the sharing of their social role and in their general concern with the problems of effective utilization of graphic records.
All of these differences warrant the conclusion that librarianship and information science are two different fields in a strong interdisciplinary relation, rather than one and the same field, or one being a special case of the other.
Another indication of the different uses of the two terms are the indexing in UMI's Dissertations Abstracts. It should be considered that information science grew out of documentation science and therefore has a tradition for considering scientific and scholarly communication, bibliographic databases , subject knowledge and terminology etc. Library science, on the other hand has mostly concentrated on libraries and their internal processes and best practices.
It is also relevant to consider that information science used to be done by scientists, while librarianship has been split between public libraries and scholarly research libraries.
Library schools have mainly educated librarians for public libraries and not shown much interest in scientific communication and documentation. When information scientists from entered library schools, they brought with them competencies in relation to information retrieval in subject databases, including concepts such as recall and precision, boolean search techniques, query formulation and related issues.
Subject bibliographic databases and citation indexes provided a major step forward in information dissemination - and also in the curriculum at library schools. Julian Warner  suggests that the information and computer science tradition in information retrieval may broadly be characterized as query transformation , with the query articulated verbally by the user in advance of searching and then transformed by a system into a set of records.
From librarianship and indexing, on the other hand, has been an implicit stress on selection power enabling the user to make relevant selections. Occasionally, LIS scholars many of whom do not self-identify as members of an interreading LIS community, or prefer names other than LIS , attempt, but are unable, to find core concepts in common.
Some believe that computing and internetworking concepts and skills underlie virtually every important aspect of LIS, indeed see LIS as a sub-field of computer science! Historically, traditions of public service, bibliography, documentalism, and information science have viewed their mission, their philosophical toolsets, and their domain of research differently. Still others deny the existence of a greater metropolitan LIS, viewing LIS instead as a loosely organized collection of specialized interests often unified by nothing more than their shared and fought-over use of the descriptor information.
Indeed, claims occasionally arise to the effect that the field even has no theory of its own. He differentiates three levels of ambition regarding cross-disciplinary research:. What is described here is a view of social fields as dynamic and changing. Library and information science is viewed as a field that started as a multidisciplinary field based on literature, psychology, sociology, management, computer science etc.
However, the following quote seems to indicate that LIS is actually developing in the opposite direction:. Amid heterogeneous clusters of collaboration among top authors, strongly connected crossdisciplinary coauthor pairs have become more prevalent. As a field with its own body of interrelated concepts, techniques, journals, and professional associations, LIS is clearly a discipline. But by the nature of its subject matter and methods LIS is just as clearly an interdiscipline , drawing on many adjacent fields see below.
Results also show that restricting the data sources to one, two, or even three databases leads to inaccurate rankings and erroneous conclusions. Because no database provides comprehensive coverage of the LIS literature, researchers must rely on a wide range of disciplinary and multidisciplinary databases for ranking and other research purposes. Even when the nine most comprehensive databases in LIS was searched and combined, The study confirms earlier research that LIS literature is highly scattered and is not limited to standard LIS databases.
What was not known or verified before, however, is that a significant amount of this literature is indexed in the interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary databases of Inside Conferences and INSPEC. Other interdisciplinary databases, such as America: History and Life, were also found to be very useful and complementary to traditional LIS databases, particularly in the areas of archives and library history. LIS are a part of a larger enterprise. No other field has this as its concern. Furner [Furner , ] has shown that discourse in the field is improved where specific terms are utilized in place of the i-word for specific senses of that term.
Michael Buckland wrote: "Educational programs in library, information and documentation are concerned with what people know, are not limited to technology, and require wide-ranging expertise. They differ fundamentally and importantly from computer science programs and from the information systems programs found in business schools.
Bawden and Robinson argue that while Information Science has overlaps with numerous other disciplines with interest in studying communication, it is unique in that it is concerned with all aspects of the communication chain.
The organization of information and information resources is one of the fundamental aspects of LIS. Some of the main tools used by LIS toward this end to provide access to the digital resources of modern times particularly theory relating to indexing and classification originated in 19th century to assist humanity's effort to make its intellectual output accessible by recording, identifying, and providing bibliographic control of printed knowledge.
For example, in the 17th century, during the 'golden age of libraries' , publishers and sellers seeking to take advantage of the burgeoning book trade developed descriptive catalogs of their wares for distribution — a practice was adopted and further extrapolated by many libraries of the time to cover areas like philosophy, sciences, linguistics, medicine, etc.
The development of Metadata is another area that exemplifies the aim of LIS to be something more than an mishmash of several disciplines — that uniqueness Bawden and Robinson describe. Pre-Internet classification systems and cataloging systems were mainly concerned with two objectives: 1. The need for descriptive information about the ownership and copyright of a digital product — a publishing concern — and description for the different formats and accessibility features of a resource — a sociological concern — show the continued development and cross discipline necessity of resource description.
In the 21st century, the usage of open data , open source and open protocols like OAI-PMH has allowed thousands of libraries and institutions to collaborate on the production of global metadata services previously offered only by increasingly expensive commercial proprietary products. Examples include BASE and Unpaywall , which automates the search of an academic paper across thousands of repositories by libraries and research institutions.
Julian Warner , p. Two paradigms, the cognitive and the physical, have been distinguished in information retrieval research, but they share the assumption of the value of delivering relevant records Ellis , 19;  Belkin and Vickery , .
For the purpose of discussion here, they can be considered a single heterogeneous paradigm, linked but not united by this common assumption. The value placed on query transformation is dissonant with common practice, where users may prefer to explore an area and may value fully informed exploration. Some dissenting research discussions have been more congruent with practice, advocating explorative capability - the ability to explore and make discriminations between representations of objects - as the fundamental design principle for information retrieval systems.
The domain analytic approach e. In some fields e. In other cases they are implicit or unclear. At the basic level, the relevance of bibliographical records are determined by epistemological criteria of what constitutes knowledge. There are other ways to identify subfields within LIS, for example bibliometric mapping and comparative studies of curricula.
There is often an overlap between these subfields of LIS and other fields of study. Most information retrieval research, for example, belongs to computer science. Knowledge management is considered a subfield of management or organizational studies. Cite error: A list-defined reference named "canun" is not used in the content see the help page.
Cite error: A list-defined reference named "collec" is not used in the content see the help page. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences.
Also available as an electronic source. Kent, H. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. Information science: origin, evolution and relations. In: Conceptions of library and information science.
Historical, empirical and theoretical perspectives. London: Taylor Graham pp. Library and information science: two paradigms. Digital Commons DU. Aware and responsible. Human information retrieval. Svensk Biblioteksforskning, 1 , The shift towards multi-disciplinarity in information science, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59 13 , — Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology.
The fragmented state of management studies: Reasons and consequences. Journal of management studies, 21 3 , The intellectual and social organization of the sciences. Oxford University Press, Oxford. The social and intellectual development of library and information science.
No 48 On inquiry: Human concept formation and construction of meaning through library and information science intermediation Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of California, Berkeley. In: Rayward, W. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. Introduction to information science. Chicago: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Incorporated. New York: W W Norton. New York: Neal-Schuman. Nature News. Theory and explanation in information retrieval research. The foundation of the concept of relevance. Evidence based practice: An analysis based on the philosophy of science.
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The resources below will help you to situate libraries within their worldwide historical context. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Library History The resources below will help you to situate libraries within their worldwide historical context.
The MLIS program can be tailored to meet the needs of individual students. A variety of transcript designated concentrations and areas of specialization are available which give students the opportunity to customize their elective coursework and focus their studies on a special area of interest. This accreditation is important to you as a student as many Library and Information Centers only hire graduates of ALA accredited programs. Our online program is one of the longest running online MLIS programs in the nation. SOIS is also recognized for excellence in several individual categories.
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In this paper we have done a comparative study of LIS professionals and managers of organizations and found more similarities than differences. This paper outlines and discusses the professional skills and necessary technological skills needed for library science professionals and managers. But what is library management that has not hitherto been taken for granted by senior librarians as their essential role as administrators of their libraries? No part of librarianship can be divorced from the concept of management - not even the more recondite aspects of professional activity such as palaeography or the bibliography of early printed books, for these, too, are concerned with the efficient control of such materials to make them readily accessible to readers.
Richard E. Rubin teams up with his daughter, Rachel G. Rubin, a rising star in the library field in her own right, for the fifth edition. Spanning all types of libraries, from public to academic, school, and special, it illuminates the major facets of LIS for students as well as current professionals. Continuing its tradition of excellence, this text addresses.
Electives 15 credit hours - students may select from a range of elective courses ranging from children's literature to information technology to archival theory and practice. One of the five electives must be a technology course: LIS , , or Successful completion of the comprehensive exam in LIS is required to receive the master's degree.
Library and information science LIS sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences   is a branch academic disciplines that deal generally with organization, access, and collection of information, whether in physical for example, art or digital form. In the last part of the s, schools of librarianship , which generally developed from professional training programs not academic disciplines to university institutions during the second half of the 20th century, began to add the term "information science" to their names. The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in
This book explores the development, trends and research of library and information sciences LIS in the digital age. Inside, readers will find research and case studies written by LIS experts, educators and theorists, most of whom have visited China, delivered presentations there and drafted their articles based on feedback they received. As a result, readers will discover the LIS issues and concerns that China and the international community have in common. The book first introduces the opportunities and challenges faced by the library and information literacy profession and discusses the key role of librarians in the future of information literacy education.
In the fifth edition of this classic textbook, Richard E. Rubin and new co-author Rachel G. Rubin provide a foundational text for LIS students and.
ГЛАВА 111 В комнате оперативного управления раздался страшный крик Соши: - Акулы. Джабба стремительно повернулся к ВР. За пределами концентрических окружностей появились две тонкие линии. Они были похожи на сперматозоиды, стремящиеся проникнуть в неподатливую яйцеклетку. - Пора, ребята! - Джабба повернулся к директору. - Мне необходимо решение. Или мы начинаем отключение, или же мы никогда этого не сделаем.
Беккер не мог выдавить ни слова. Проваливай и умри. Он не верил своим глазам.
Это чистая правда! - кричал. - Мы должны позвать людей на помощь. Нам обоим грозит опасность. Сьюзан не верила ни единому его слову.
Сьюзан поднялась на верхнюю ступеньку лестницы. Она не успела постучать, как заверещал электронный дверной замок. Дверь открылась, и коммандер помахал ей рукой.
На самом деле я его не продала, - сказала Росио.
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